“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers…

An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers……….
An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

The Knowledge Library

General Science

1. Fatigue is caused because of formation and depositing of which among the following acids in Muscles?

[A] Lactic Acid
[B] Acetic acid
[C] Citric Acid
[D] Pyruvic acid


Correct Answer: A [Lactic Acid]

Fatigue is caused because of formation and depositing of Lactic acid, or lactate which is a chemical by product of anaerobic respiration which is the process by which cells produce energy without oxygen around.

2.Which among the following is the correct location of Adrenal Glands in the Human Body?

[A] Above kidneys
[B] Below kidneys
[C] Above Medulla Oblongata
[D] Near Pancreases


Correct Answer: A [Above kidneys]

Each adrenal gland is located on the top of each kidney (forming a hat-like structure on the top of the kidneys). Each adrenal gland has two parts viz. outer cortical portion and inner adrenal cortex. Further, there is a central part called adrenal medulla.

3.Which among the following is the correct meaning of Phyllotaxy?

[A] Classification of plants as per the leaves structure
[B] The manner of arrangement of leaves in stem or branch
[C] The manner the leaves fall from the branches
[D] The anatomy of leaves in angiosperms


Correct Answer: B [The manner of arrangement of leaves in stem or branch]

Phyllotaxy means the manner of arrangement of leaves in stem or branch. It is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem. Phyllotactic spirals usually form a distinctive class of patterns in nature.

4.Which of the following tests is used for the diagnosis of ‘Colour-Blindness’ in people ?

[A] Ishihara Test
[B] Widal Test
[C] ELISA test
[D] Rorschach test


Correct Answer: A [Ishihara Test]

Ishihara Test is used for the diagnosis of ‘Colour-Blindness’ in people. The test contains a number of colored plates, called Ishihara plates. Each of these plates contain a circle of dots appearing randomized in color and size.

5.Which among the following factors are essential for ‘blood coagulation’?

  1. Vitamin K
  2. Calcium ions (Ca++)
  3. Christmas factor

Select the correct option from the codes given below:

[A] 1 and 2
[B] 1 and 3
[C] 2 and 3
[D] 1, 2 and 3


Correct Answer: D [1, 2 and 3]

Factor IX (or Christmas factor) is one of the serine proteases of the coagulation system. Deficiency of this protein causes hemophilia B.

6.Which among the following makes the peepal tree release oxygen all the time?

[A] C3 Photosynthesis
[B] C4 Photosynthesis
[C] Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
[D] Carbon cycle re-balancing


Correct Answer: C [ Crassulacean Acid Metabolism]

Most plants largely uptake Carbon dioxide (co2) and release oxygen during the day (photosynthesis) and uptake oxygen and release CO2 during the night (respiration). Some plants such as Peepal tree can uptake CO² during the night as well because of their ability to perform a type of photosynthesis called Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). However, it is not true that they release large amounts of oxygen during the night. CAM is one of the three types of photosynthesis pathways occurring commonly in plants; the other two being C3 and C4 pathways. Of these, C3 is the most common among land plants. CAM occurs primarily in desert plants and epiphytes (plants that live on other plants, usually large trees). CAM plants do not open their stomata during the day in order to minimize water loss. During the night, they open their stomata and fix CO² in the form of malate. During the day, they breakdown the malate and use the released CO2 through Kalvin cycle to produce sugars, similar to C3 plants. However, CAM is an energy inefficient reaction and hence plants use CAM only during certain conditions. Peepal tree is a hemi-epiphyte in its native habitat i.e. the seeds germinate and grow as an epiphyte on other trees and then when the host-tree dies, they establish on the soil. It has been suggested that when they live as epiphyte, they use CAM pathway to produce carbohydrates and when they live on soil, they switch to C3 type photosynthesis. So, Peepal tree would either release or not release CO² in the night depending on if they are epiphytic or not. For other CAM plants, it would depend on if they have adequate water or not, or other environmental factors.

7.Which among the following hormone can be used as a drug to treat cardiac arrest and some other cardiac problems?

[A] Thyroxin
[B] Epinephrine
[C] Calcitonin
[D] Insulin


Correct Answer: B [ Epinephrine]

8.The Modern periodic table has__:

[A] seven periods and eighteen groups
[B] nine periods and eighten groups
[C] seven periods and twenty one groups
[D] nine periods and twenty one groups


Correct Answer: A [ seven periods and eighteen groups]

Recently, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) have officially confirmed the permanent addition of four new elements to the periodic table. The IUPAC had announced last week that all four elements with atomic number 113, 115, 117 and 118 have met the criteria for discovery.Thus; it completed the seventh row of periodic table.

9.Echoes are heard when we shout in an empty hall. But when the hall is full of people no echoes are heard why?

[A] Echoes are subdued in the noise of people
[B] Soft clothes of people absorb sound instead of reflecting it
[C] Destructive interference of sound takes place
[D] Excessive reverberations take place


Correct Answer: D [ Excessive reverberations take place]

Echoes are heard when we shout in an empty hall. But when the hall is full of people no echoes are heard because excessive reverberations take place.

  1. Consider the following statements:
  1. Low pitch sound has low frequency and high pitch of sound has high frequency
  2. Soft sound has small pitch and louder sound has large pitch

Which among the above statements is / are correct?

[A] Only 1
[B] Only 2
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2


Correct Answer: A [ Only 1]

Excerpt from NCERT Class IX Science. How the brain interprets the frequency of an emitted sound is called its pitch. The faster the vibration of the source, the higher is the frequency and the higher is the pitch. Thus, a high pitch sound corresponds to more number of compressions and rarefactions passing a fixed point per unit time. Objects of different sizes and conditions vibrate at different frequencies to produce sounds of different pitch. The loudness or softness of a sound is determined basically by its amplitude. The amplitude of the sound wave depends upon the force with which an object is made to vibrate. If we strike a table lightly, we hear a soft sound because we produce a sound wave of less energy (amplitude). If we hit the table hard we hear a loud sound. Can you tell why? Loud sound can travel a larger distance as it is associated with higher energy. A sound wave spreads out from its source. As it moves away from the source its amplitude as well as its loudness decreases.

11.world’s first cloned Buffalo was born in which country?

[A] India
[B] China
[D] Russia


Correct Answer: A [India]

The First cloned buffalo was born in February 2009 at National Dairy Research Institute karnal

12.The phenomenon in which seeds germinate and seedlings grow while still attached to their mother plant before dropping down to establish themselves or be transported elsewhere, is most commonly found in which among the following plants?

[A] Allium cepa
[B] Rhizophora
[C] Solanum tuberosum
[D] Solanum melongena


Correct Answer: B [Rhizophora]

Allium cepa is onion.
Solanum tuberosum is potato,
Solanum melongena is Brinjal.
The phenomenon given in this question is shown by Mangrove Plants and is known as Vivipary and Rhizophora belongs to that category.

13.Which among the following minerals is also known as Horn Silver?

[A] Silver Iodide
[B] Silver Chroride
[C] Zinc Phosphate
[D] Silver Sulphide


Correct Answer: B [Silver Chroride]

Chlorargyrite is the mineral form of silver chloride (AgCl). It is also known as cerargyrite and, when weathered by desert air, as horn silver. Silver chloride is formed by the disappearance of the initial silver oxide layer.

14.A cardboard is placed on a glass of water, and a ten paise coin is placed on the cardboard. If the cardboard is flicked suddenly in the direction parallel to its surface, then the cardboard flies away, but the coin falls in the glass.
The behaviour of the coin can be explained by which among the following properties?

[A] Momentum
[B] Acceleration
[C] Inertia
[D] Friction


Correct Answer: C [ Inertia]

Inertia is the property of matter that is why it continues in its existing state of either rest or motion. It can be changed by an external force. Here in the question the coin falls in the glass even after the cardboard is flicked because it maintains its rest position by the nature of inertia.

15.The ancestors of land plants were most likely similar to modern__:

[A] Conifers
[B] Ferns
[C] Green Algae
[D] Flowering Plants


Correct Answer: C [ Green Algae]

The ancestor of the modern multicellular plant is the green algae, Chlorophyta.

16.Antibiotic resistance:
1. is an example of natural selection
2. can be result of overuse of antibiotics
3. can be induced by horizontal gene transfer
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:

[A] Only 1 & 2
[B] Only 2 & 3
[C] Only 2
[D] 1, 2 & 3


Correct Answer: D [ 1, 2 & 3]

Antibiotic resistance is an example of natural selection. It can be caused as a result of overuse of antibiotics. It can also be induced by horizontal gene transfer in the next generations.

17.Two pieces of ice at 0°C would freeze together if pressed against each other and then released. In this context, which among the following is the correct principle in action in this?

[A] The melting point of pure ice decreases with pressure.
[B] The melting point of pure ice increases with Pressure
[C] The melting point of pure ice first increases, then decreases with pressure
[D] The melting point of pure ice first decreases then increases with pressure


Correct Answer: A [ The melting point of pure ice decreases with pressure.]

Melting point of pure ice decreases with pressure at the rate of 0.0072°C per atmosphere and this is called regulation, which was discovered by Faraday and occurs at some 0°C or very slightly less temperature.

18.When two bodies, of different mass, are acted upon by the same force for the same time, then both bodies acquire the:

[A] Same velocity
[B] Same momentum
[C] Same acceleration
[D] All of the above


Correct Answer: B [ Same momentum]

Force= Rate of change of momentum
(F = dp/dt)
p= momentum
Mass will remain same for both the bodies, and when Force applied is equal on both the bodies, then there will be different rate of change of velocity (different acceleration) to have same momentum.

19.Consider the following diseases:

  1. Kala-azar
  2. Chikungunya
  3. Filariasis

The WHO’s mandatory elimination list calls for elimination of which of the above by 2017 from India?

[A] Only 1 & 2
[B] Only 2 & 3
[C] Only 1 & 3
[D] 1, 2 & 3


Correct Answer: C [ Only 1 & 3]

Chikungunya is not included the mandatory elimination list. The 2017 target for the elimination of kala azar and filariasis, is mandated by the WHO.

20.Which among the following is a matching set in taxonomy?

[A] Leech, Locust, Sea urchin, Lobster
[B] Star Fish, Jelly Fish, Cuttle Fish, Octopus
[C] Milliped, Crab, Centipede, Cockroach
[D] Round Worm, Earthworm, Flatworm, Silk worm


Correct Answer: C [ Milliped, Crab, Centipede, Cockroach]

Milliped, Crab, Centipede, Cockroach is a matching set in taxonomy.

21.Who among the following is credited for the discovery of ‘Expanding Universe’?

[A] Edwin Hubble
[B] Niels Bohr
[C] S Chandra Shekhar
[D] C.V Raman


Correct Answer: A [Edwin Hubble]

Edwin Hubble, an american astronomer, and was the first to prove that the universe is expanding. According to Expanding Universe theory, the universe is presently expanding. Hubble proved that there is a direct relationship between the speeds of distant galaxies and their distances from Earth. This is now known as Hubble’s Law.

22.Which of the following units is the smallest in terms of length?

[A] micron
[B] nanometer
[C] fermi
[D] angstrom


Correct Answer: C [ fermi ]

Out of the given options, fermi is the smallest unit for measurement of distance. 1 micron = 10-6 m 1 nanometre = 10-9 m 1 angstrom = 10-10m 1 fermi = 10-15m The above four units are used for the measurement of small distances.

23.The thrust on the rocket is:

[A] in the same direction of the rocket
[B] in the opposite direction of the rocket
[C] at 90° to the direction of the rocket
[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: B [in the opposite direction of the rocket]

The thrust on the rocket is in the opposite direction of the rocket. The thrust is the force with which rocket moves upwards. F = -u (dm/dt)

24.What is the value of Universal Gravitational Constant?

[A] 6.67×10-9 N–m2 kg–2
[B] 6.67×10-10 N–m2 kg–2
[C] 6.67×1011 N–m2 kg–2
[D] 6.67×10-11 N–m2 kg–2


Correct Answer: D [6.67×10-11 N–m2 kg–2]

The value of Universal Gravitational Constant is same throughout the universe and is equal to 6.67×10-11 Nm2 kg-2 in S.I. and 6.67×10-8 dyne cm2 g-2

25.What is the S.I unit of Pressure?

[A] N/Kg m2
[B] N/m
[C] N/m3 s
[D] N/m2


Correct Answer: D [N/m2]

The SI unit of pressure is N/m2 It has been named as Pascal (Pa) in honour of the French scientist Blaise Pascal for carrying out pioneering studies on fluid pressure. Its dimensions are M L-1-2

26.Which of the following is equal to the upthrust of the body?

[A] mass of body
[B] weight of liquid
[C] weight of liquid displaced
[D] density of liquid


Correct Answer: C [weight of liquid displaced]

Archimedes Principle: when a body is immersed partially or completely in a liquid, it experiences an upthrust, which is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body.

27.By what phase angle the velocity is ahead of displacement in S.H.M?

[A] π
[B] π/4
[C] π/2
[D] 2π


Correct Answer: C [π/2]

In S.H.M. the velocity is ahead of displacement by a phase angle π/ 2, the acceleration is ahead of velocity by a phase angle π/ 2 and the acceleration is ahead of displacement by a phase angle of π.

28.What is the wavelength range of Radio waves?

[A] between 400 nm and 800 nm
[B] between 1 nm and 10-3 nm
[C] more than 0.1 m
[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: C [more than 0.1 m]

Radio waves are produced by the accelerated motion of charges in conducting wires. They are used in radio and television communication systems. They have frequencies from 300 GHz to as low as 3 kHz, and having wavelength range more than 0.1 m.

29.In which of the following mediums will sound travel with greater speed at 0° C?

[A] Aluminium
[B] Water
[C] Hydrogen
[D] Same in all of the above


Correct Answer: A [Aluminium]

The speed of sound decreases when we go from solid to gaseous state.

30.What is the equivalent EMF of a series combination of n cells?

[A] the arithmetic mean of their EMFs
[B] the product of their individual EMF
[C] the sum of their individual EMF
[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: C [the sum of their individual EMF]

The equivalent emf of a series combination of n cells is just the sum of their individual EMFs.

31.What is the relationship between the velocity of sound and the pressure of gas when the temperature remains constant?

[A] directly proportional to each other
[B] inversely proportional to each other
[C] independent of each other
[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: C [independent of each other]

The velocity of sound is independent of the pressure of gas provided the temperature remains constant.

32.What is the splitting of light into its colours known as?

[A] Diffusion
[B] Dispersion
[C] Refraction
[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: B [Dispersion]

Splitting of light into its colours is known as dispersion of light. Rainbow is a natural phenomenon showing dispersion.

33.How can a moving coil galvanometer be converted into a ammeter?

[A] by introducing shunt resistance in parallel
[B] by introducing shunt resistance in series
[C] by introducing large resistance in series
[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: A [by introducing shunt resistance in parallel]

A moving coil galvanometer can be converted into a ammeter by introducing a shunt resistance rs of small value in parallel.

34.What is Tyndall effect?

[A] scattering of a beam of light by the particles of a suspension
[B] refraction of a beam of light by the particles of a solution

[C] scattering of a beam of light by the particles of a colloid
[D] reflection of a beam of light by the particles of a suspension


Correct Answer: C [scattering of a beam of light by the particles of a colloid]

The scattering of a beam of light by the particles of a colloid is called the Tyndall effect.

35.Which of the following orbital will be filled first among two orbitals?

[A] Orbital with higher value of (n+l)
[B] Orbital with lower value of (n+l)
[C] Orbital with lower value of (n)
[D] Orbital with lower value of (l)


Correct Answer: B [Orbital with lower value of (n+l)]

The rule for orbital filling states that the orbitals with lower value of (n+l) are filled first as they have lower energy.

36.What of these is the chemical formula of Rust?

[A] Fe2O3. nH2O
[B] Fe2Cl3. nH2O
[C] FeCO2. nH2O
[D] FeO. nH2O


Correct Answer: A [Fe2O3. nH2O]

Rusting is the corrosion of Iron in which iron (Fe) combines with oxygen to form rust, or iron oxide. Fe2O3. nH2O is usually called as hydrated ferric Oxide.

37.Which of the following is / are correct statements with respect to Graphite?

  1. It is the most stable phase of carbon at normal conditions
  2. It is made of made of sp3 hybridized carbon atoms
  3. It is good conductor of both heat and electricity

Select the correct option from the codes given below:

[A] Only 1 & 2
[B] Only 2 & 3
[C] Only 1 & 3
[D] 1, 2 & 3


Correct Answer: C [Only 1 & 3 ]

Graphite is an allotrope of Carbon. It is a good conductor of electricity as well as heat. It is also most stable phase of carbon at normal conditions. It is made of made out of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms.

38.Which of the following is an organic compound?

[A] Carbon disulfide – CS2
[B] Carbon monoxide – CO
[C] Carbon tetrabromide – CBr4
[D] Carbon tetrachloride – CCl4


Correct Answer: D [Carbon tetrachloride – CCl4]

Carbon tetrachloride – CCl4 is traditionally considered to be an organic compound despite not having H atoms.

39.Which of these polymer is commonly used in making parachute ropes?

[A] Bakelite
[B] Nylon-66
[C] Neoprene


Correct Answer: B [Nylon-66]

Nylon 66 is a polymer of adipic acid (tetra methelene dicarboxylic acid) and hexamethelene diamine. Nylon 66 is used in the manufacturing of brushes synthetic fibres, parachutes, ropes and carpets.

40.Which of these polymers is formed by the polymerization of the dimer of lactic acid?

[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: A [PLA]

PLA, also known as Polyactic acid, is obtained by polymerization of the dimer of lactic acid. It is also produced by micro biological synthesis of lactic acid followed by the polycondensation and removal of water by evaporation.

41.Which of the following metal finds its use as a radiocontrast agent in X-ray imaging?

[A] Scandium
[B] Lithium
[C] Barium
[D] Titanium


Correct Answer: C [Barium]

Barium sulfate is used as a radiocontrast agent in X-ray imaging of the digestive system. It increases the contrast of medical X-rays of the digestive system.

42.Which of the following would come in use to treat diseased skin surfaces?

[A] Analgesics
[B] Antiseptics
[C] Antihistamines
[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: B [ Antiseptics]

Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. Examples of antiseptics are furacine, soframicine, etc

43.In which of the following plants, gametophyte is considered prothallus?

[A] Bryophyte
[B] Thallophyta
[C] Spermatophyte
[D] Pteridophyta


Correct Answer: D [Pteridophyta]

Gametophyte is considered prothallus in Pteridophytes. Just as with seed plants and mosses, the life cycle of pteridophytes involves alternation of generations. This means that a diploid generation of the sporophyte, which produces spores is followed by a haploid generation i.e. the gametophyte or prothallus, which produces gametes.

44.Which of the following is the major chemical compound found in kidney stones?

[A] urea
[B] calcium carbonate
[C] calcium oxalate
[D] calcium sulphate


Correct Answer: C [calcium oxalate]

Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stone. Kidney stones are solid masses that are found in the kidney when there are high levels of calcium, oxalate, cystine, or phosphate and too little liquid. Calcium oxalate stones are caused by too much oxalate in the urine.

45.The name of which spice comes from the French word for ‘nail’?

[A] Cinnamon
[B] Cardamom
[C] Clove
[D] None of the above


Correct Answer: C [Clove]

Cloves are brown, hard, and nail-like in shape. The English name derives from the Latin clavus (nail) and the French word for nail is clou. As a spice, in whole or powder form, cloves are used in cuisines all around the world.

46.Anions are formed by which of the following?

[A] losing of electrons
[B] losing of neutrons
[C] gaining of neutrons
[D] gaining of electrons


Correct Answer: D [gaining of electrons]

When atoms gain electrons, they acquire a negative charge because they now possess more electrons than protons. Negatively charged ions are called anions.

47.Which of the following disease is non-communicable in nature?

[A] Tuberculosis
[B] Chicken-pox
[C] Cholera
[D] Cancer


Correct Answer: D [Cancer]

A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is by definition non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. Eg. Cancer which is also called malignancy, is an abnormal growth of cells.

48.Which of the following is the largest gland in human body?

[A] Thyroid
[B] Kidney
[C] Liver
[D] Pancreas


Correct Answer: C [Liver]

Liver is both the heaviest internal organ and the largest gland in the human body. Located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, it rests just below the diaphragm, to the right of the stomach and overlies the gallbladder.

49.Which of the following Vitamin is responsible for anti-sterile activities?

[A] Vitamin A
[B] Vitamin B
[C] Vitamin E
[D] Vitamin D


Correct Answer: C [Vitamin E]

Vitamin E is known as anti-sterility vitamin or fertility vitamin. It is chemically called as tocopherol. Vitamin E deficiency occurs rarely in adults. Much like vitamin C, vitamin E is another powerful anti-oxidant. Vitamin E is used during testosterone synthesis. Sperm production or spermatogenesis requires vitamin E as well as zinc. Following symptoms have been associated with vitamin E deficiency in humans:

  • Muscular weakness & dystrophy, nocturnal muscle cramps
  • Neurological disorders
  • Degeneration of liver (hepatic necrosis)
  • Shortened life-span of RBCs

50.The principle that equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules when under the same conditions of pressure and temperature was given by?

[A] Dmitri Mendeleyev
[B] Jons Jacob Berzelius
[C] Amedeo Avogadro
[D] John Dalton


Correct Answer: C [Amedeo Avogadro]

Amedeo Avogadro (1776 – 1856) was an Italian scientist who came up with Avogadro’s law which states that equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules when under the same conditions of pressure and temperature. The Avogadro constant was named after him.


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