1. If the conditioned stimulus is presented many times without reinforcement, we can expect
(A) an increase in stimulus generalization
(B) the strength of the UR to increase
(C) an increase in response generalization
(D) extinction to occur
2. Punishment is most often effective in suppressing behaviour when it is
(A) immediate, consistent, and intense
(B) delayed, consistent, and mild.
(C)immediate, consistent, and mild
(D) delayed, inconsistent, and intense
3. The greatest degree of resistance to extinction is typically caused by a ————schedule of reinforcement.
(A)variable interval (B) variable ratio
(C) fixed interval (D) fixed ratio
4. The first grade teacher gives students stickers when they perform well. If they earn five stickers in one day they are exempt from homework. The stickers in this example could also be called
(A) tokens (B) primary reinforcers
(C) generalized reinforcers (D) prepotent responses
5. A punisher can be
(A) the onset o fan unpleasant event
(B) the removal of a positive state of affairs
(C) any consequences that reduces the occurrence of a behaviour
(D) a positive reinforcer
6. When will behavior be most motivated?
(A) Reinforcement has bee frequent in the past.
(B) Deprivation and drive is high.
(C) High desirability of reward.
(D) All of the above.
7. A visual disorder in which reading is impaired by a perceptual confusion of letters is called
(A) Dyslexia (B) Dysosmia
(C) Dysgensia (D) Paranoia
8. Which of the following is an example of a Specific Learning Disability?
(A) Mental Retardation (B)Dyslexia
(C) Autism spectrum disorder (D) ADHD
9. In learning disabilities, the name for mathematical disorder is:
(A) Dyspraxia (B) Dyslexia
(C) Dyscalculia (D) Dysphasia .
10. Learning can be defined as
(A) a change in behaviour
(B) an observable change in behaviour resulting from experiences in the environment
(C) a permanent change in behaviour resulting form experience
(D) a relatively permanent acquisition of information through study
11. Ivan Pavlov is important in psychology because he
(A) discovered the principles of classical conditioning
(B) discovered the principles of operant conditioning
(C) discovered the principles of observational learning
(D) none of the above
12. —————— is a consequence which increases the likelihood that the preceding behaviour will occur again.
(C) both reinforcement and punishment
(D) none of the above
13. In reinforcement, the reinforcer follows every correct response
(A) Intermittent (B)Partial
(C)Negative (D) Continuous
14. In Pavlov’s experiments with dogs, salivation was the
(A) conditioned response
(B) unconditioned response
(C) conditioned stimulus
(D) unconditioned stimulus
15. The presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a positive stimulus are both examples of
(A) negative reinforcement (B) punishment
(C) positive reinforcement (D) secondary reinforcement
16. A gifted child
(A) always has a very high IQ
(B) is always an exceptional child
(C) always performs difficult mental tasks
(D) always asktoo many questions
17. Which one of the following is ‘not’a characteristic oflanguage development
(A) Semanticity (B) Productivity
(C) Tactfulness (D) Displacement
18. Which one of the following is ‘not’ a characteristic of gifted child
(A) Transferring skills to new problems
(B) Higher order problem solving and decision making
19. Agifted child
(A) high intelligence, high creativity and high motivation ‘
(B) average intelligence, high creativity and high motivation
(C)high intelligence, average creativity and high motivation
(D) high intelligence, high creativity and average motivation
20. A moderately retarded child has IQ:
(A)50-70 (B) below 35
(C)35-49 (D) 70-85
21. The skill of using language in social context is
(A) Semantics (B) Pragmatics
(C) Syntax (D) Generativity
22. Adults modify their language when communicating with children in order to support the child. This kind of supporting is called
(A) Scaffolding (B)Helping
(C) Adjusting (D) Identifying
23. Which of the following statements about punishment is FALSE?
(A) Punishment teaches new responses
(B) Punishment temporarily suppresses a response
(C) Punishment may permanently suppress a response
(D) Punishment applies an aversive event.
24. Operant conditioning was studied by
(A) Pavlov (B) Skinner
(C) Freud (D) Maslow
25. Which of the following mightserve as a secondary reinforce?
(A) Sex (B) Grades
(C)Pain relieving drug (D) Food
26. In a classic experiment, “Little Albert,” a very young boy, was conditioned to be afraid of a rat. He also became fearful of white furry rabbits and bearded men. This is an example of (A) spontaneous recovery (B) higher order conditioning
(C) extinction (D) stimulus generalization
27. Negative reinforcement —————– responding; punishment ————- responding.
(A) increases; increases (B) decreases; decreases
(C) increases; decreases (D) decreases; increases
28. ————— occurs when making a response removes an unpleasant event.
(A) Positive reinforcement (B) Negative reinforcement
(C) Extinction (D) Punishment
29. Negative reinforcement and punishment
(A) have opposite effects on behaviour
(B) are different terms for the same procedures
(C) have the same effect on behaviour
(D) are not very effective in changing behaviour
30. To extinguish classical conditioning. You must break the association between which pair?
(A) C Sand CR (B) US and UR
(C) U Sand CR (D) U Rand CR
31. A stimulus or event, when its termination is contingent to a response increases the likelihood of the occurrence of the response, is a
(A) Primary Reinforcer (B) Negative Reinforcer
(C) Secondary Reinforcer (D) Positive Reinforcer
32. Creativity is measured on the dimension of
(A) originality (B) applicability
(C)flexibility (D) all of the above
33. Learning that is affected by consequences is called
(A) Behavioural self management (B) Operant conditioning
(C) Self-regulated learning (D) Classical conditioning
34. Identify the factor which distracts us from the solving a problem
(A) Flexibility (B) Divergent Thinking
(C) Set (D) Goal
35. Intelligence was believed to be distributed among people:
(A) Uniformly (B) Normally
(C) Widely (D) Selectively
36. A view that”anything can be taught at any stage of development” was proposed by:
(A)Jean Piaget (B)D. Ausubel
(C)J. Bruner (D)B.F. Skinner
37. A student is working hard and solving mathematical problems as his father has promised to give him a motorcycle if the gets good marks. This means that the student has (A) intrinsic motivation (B) extrinsić motivation
(C) mathematical motivation (D) None of the above