“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers…

An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers……….
An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

The Knowledge Library


The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic downturn that lasted from the late 1920s through the 1930s. It was the most extended and deepest depression of the 20th century and had profound effects on economies, societies, and politics around the globe.

The Great Depression had several key causes, including:

1. **Stock market crash**: The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday, marked the beginning of the Great Depression. Stock prices plummeted, wiping out vast amounts of wealth and triggering a financial panic.

2. **Overproduction and underconsumption**: Industries such as agriculture, manufacturing, and construction experienced overproduction during the 1920s, leading to excess inventory and declining prices. At the same time, many consumers lacked purchasing power, contributing to underconsumption.

3. **Bank failures**: The banking system faced widespread failures as panicked depositors rushed to withdraw their funds following the stock market crash. Bank runs and bank closures further exacerbated the economic crisis, leading to a contraction of credit and investment.

4. **Global economic imbalances**: The Great Depression spread rapidly across the world due to interconnected global markets and economic imbalances. Protectionist trade policies, currency devaluations, and international debt contributed to the spread of the crisis.

The Great Depression had devastating consequences for individuals, families, and communities. Unemployment soared, reaching levels of over 25% in some countries. Many businesses collapsed, and millions of people lost their homes, savings, and livelihoods. Poverty, homelessness, and hunger became widespread, leading to social unrest and political upheaval.

Governments responded to the Great Depression with a variety of policies and interventions, including public works programs, monetary reforms, and social welfare initiatives. In the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal introduced a series of economic and social reforms aimed at stabilizing the economy, providing relief to the unemployed and impoverished, and stimulating recovery.

While the Great Depression eventually ended with the onset of World War II, its legacy continued to shape economic policies and institutions for decades to come. It highlighted the need for government intervention in the economy to prevent and mitigate future economic crises and led to the establishment of new regulatory frameworks and social safety nets.

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