“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers…

An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers……….
An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

The Knowledge Library

GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES AND THEIR IMPACT ON HISTORY

Introduction

The Indian subcontinent has three main reasons: Himalayas Mountains, the southern peninsula, and Indo – The Gangetic plains.

    • Regional differences and related separate identities greatly fostered by geography have stood in the way of the rise of durable pan Indian states in Indian history.
    • Never was the whole subcontinent a single political unit.
    • The Himalayas in the North and northwest and the Indian ocean in the south create a superficial view of the isolation of the country from the subcontinent.
    • However, the most difficult terrain does not impede the movement of ideas and influences between the people. Cultural influences have been exchanged across the frontiers and there have been maritime contacts with the west, West Asia, and Southeast Asia from the earlier times.

Himalayan mountains:

  • The mountains stretch from Pamir in the North West to the northeast. It has a length of 2560 km and a breadth of 240-320km.
  • The Himalayas protect the Indian subcontinent from cold winds blowing from Siberia to Central Asia.
  • The Himalayas also protect against external invasions but the passes Khyber, Gomal, Khurram, and Bolan allow easy access.
  • The Greeks, Huns, Parthians, Turks, and Sakas entered the subcontinent through these. Alexander came through the Swat valley. These passes allowed trade as well as cultural contact between India and central Asia.
  • In the east, the Himalayas have thick forests and heavy rains, and thus many regions of the Himalayas are isolated from the rest.

Indo Gangetic Plains:

It is a very fertile region irrigated by Ganga, Yamuna, and Brahmaputra. The Thar Desert and Aravalli hills are located between Ganga and Indus plains. The area between two rivers is called “doab“.

Many urban centers are located at the confluence of rivers and river banks. The most important urban center is Delhi on the western side of the Gangetic plain.

The plain is a source of temptation and attraction to foreign invaders due to its fertility and productive wealth. Important battles were fought to conquer these plains especially the Ganga Yamuna doab was the most coveted and contested battle.

Kurukshetra and Panipat were the most common battlegrounds.

The rivers in these regions are arteries of commerce and communication.

Southern Peninsula:

  • The Vindhya and Satpuda mountain ranges along with Narmada and Tapti rivers form the dividing line. The plateau to the south of it is the Deccan plateau which is of volcanic rock.  As the rocks are easier to cut many rock-cut temples and monasteries are found here.
  • The Deccan plateau is flanked by Eastern and the Western Ghats.
  • The Coromandel Coast is located between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet at Nilgiri hills.
  • The Deccan plateau is the bridge between north and south but due to the dense forests in the Vindhyas, the culture and language are well preserved due to geographic isolation.
  • In the south, Palghat’s pass from Kaveri valley to Malabar Coast was famous for Indo – Roman trade. The Eastern Ghats are low and cut in places due to fast-flowing rivers. The rivers of the southern peninsula flow from west to east except for Narmada and Tapti which flow from east to west. The rivers flow parallel to each other.
  • The Krishna Tungabhadra doab has been hotly contested by southern kingdoms due to its fertility. Due to the long coastline, the south kingdoms developed cultural and commercial relations with Greco – Roman kingdoms.

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KAUSIK CHAKRABORTY

KAUSIK CHAKRABORTY

Founder Director

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