6. Who wrote the paper commonly known as the ‘Behaviourist Manifesto?
(a) John B watson (b) Edward Thorndike
(c) Ivan Pavlov (d) B.F. Skinner
27. What is meant by the term ‘reinforcement’?
(a) When a stimulus presented before a specific behaviour increases the rate or probability of that behaviour
(b)When a stimulus presented after a specific behaviour increases the rate or probability of that behaviour
(c) When a stimulus presented simultaneously to a specific behaviour increases the rate or probability of that behaviour
(d) When a stimulus increases the intensity of a specific behaviour
28. What term is used to describe the idea that higher order thoughts result from the combination of elementary mental processes, which the individual learns to associate with one another based on experience?
(a) Functionalism (b) Behaviourism
(c) Empiricism (d) Associationism
29. The S-Runits are called ——–
(a) Behaviour Traits (b) Reflexes
(c) Instincts (d) Insight learning
30. Little Albert experiment showed that:
(a) Learning is conditioning (b) Learning is perception
(c) Insight learning (d) Rote learning
31. The founding father of psychology is considered to be
(a) Wilhelm Wundt (b) William James
(c) Johannes Muller (d) Charles Darwin
32. A child is largely nonverbal, is learning to coordinate purposeful movements with sense information, and is developing the concept of object permanence. The child is in Piaget’s…………… stage
(a) Sensorimotor (b) Preoperational
(c) Concrete operational (d) Formal operation
33. Newborn children
(a) Have limited sense abilities at birth and cannot feel pain at all
(b) Can follow a moving object with their eyes.
(c) Cannot learn and must depend on the adaptive reflexes in order to survive.
(d) Have extremely poor hearing
34…… ….. is an example of a congenital problem.
(a) Williams Syndrome (b) Exposure to radiation
(c) Down’s Syndrome (d) Color blindness
35. If touched on the cheek, neonates will turn their head in that direction. This is called the:
(a) M Moro reflex. (b) Rooting reflex.
(c) Orientation response. (d) Babinski response
36. Physical growth and development is called
(a) Readiness. (b) Maturation.
(c) Mobility. (d) Heredity.
37. Object permanence is to sensori-motor stage as conservation and reversibility are to
(a) Formal operational stage (b) Preoperational stage.
(C) Informal operational stage. (d) Concrete operational stage.
38. Substances capable of causing birth defects are known as
(a) Carcinogens (b) Teratogens.
(c) Chorionic villi. (d) Antigens.
39. A child and her father are walking. The child knows there are such things as birds but has never seen a blue bird before.Upon seeing one, she says, “See the birdie,” and her father replies, “Yes, that’s a bluebird.”This example demonstrates:
(a) Assimilation (b)Accommodation
(c) Conservation. (d) Object permanence
40. Piaget is mainly known for studying
(a) Language development. (b) Sexual development.
(c) Social development. (d) Cognitive development.
41. When her mother leaves, Linda cries. When her mother returns, Linda crawls into her lap. According to Mary Ainsworth, Linda hasa(n)…………….. attachment.
(a)Securely attached (b) secure-avoidant
(C) insecure-avoidant (d) insecure-ambivalent
42. A child has learned to get his or her way with a younger sibling by using physical intimidation. If he or she uses the same tactic on peers, this demonstrates
(a) Social learning. (b) Classical conditioning.
(c) Assimilation. (d) Accommodation..
43. The repetition by infants of meaningless language sounds (including both vowel and consonant sounds) is called
(a) Babbling. (b) Cooing.
(c) Telegraphic speech. (d) Crying.
44. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory suggests that a child’s most important discoveries are guided by:
(a) Other children (b) adults acting as tutors.
(c) neither ọther children nor adults acting as tutors.
(d) both other children and adults acting as tutors
(c) John B Watson (d) Wolfgang Kohler
(c) Wolfgang Kohler (d) Wilhelm Wundt
47. The first formal psychology laboratory is situated in: –
(c) Athens (d) America
48. Individual behaviour is determined by:
(b) The individual’s acquired traits
(C) The social and physical context
(d) All of the above