1. The largest standing army of the Delhi Sultanate directly paid by the State was created by Alauddin Khalji.
2. Majnun Shah was the founder and leader of the ‘Muslim Faqirs‘.
3. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the most learned Medieval Muslim Ruler who was well-versed in various branches of learning including Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine.
4. The Delhi Sultan Qutbuddin Aibak died while playing Chaugan (Polo)
5. Iltumish was the first Sultan of Delhi to issue regular currency and to declare Delhi as the Capital of his empire. He is known as the ”Slave of a Slave”.
6. Al Beruni was the author of Kitab – Ul- Hind.
7. Ghazni was a small principality in Afghanistan.
8. The Mansabdari system was borrowed from Mongolia. It was a unique system developed by the Mughals.
9. Firdausi is the author of ”Shah Nama”
10. The select body of the Turkish aristocracy is known as ”The Forty‘
11. The term `Khalisa‘ in the Sultanate and Mughal periods were used for land revenue which was assigned to the nobles for maintaining troops.
12. Guru Har Govind Singh was responsible for making ‘Sikhism‘ a militant force.
13. The largest number of Irrigation canals in the Sultanate period was built by Firuz Shah Tughlaq.
14. ‘Chahalghani‘ under Iltumish represented his Turkish Slaves.
15. Tax on plunder during the war in the Sultanate Period was known as ‘Khums‘.
16. The Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq introduced tokens currency.
17. Deterioration in the law and order situation was the reason for the decline in trade & commerce during the period of later Mughals.
18. Guru Arjun Dev compiled Guru Granth Sahib
19. Tulsi Das composed his Ramacharitamanas during the reign of Akbar.
20. Akbar established Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri
21. The Upanishads were translated into Persian by Dara Shikoh.
22. Akbar’s mausoleum is situated at Sikandra.
23. After his coronation, Shivaji assumed the title of Chhatrapati
24. Abdul Latif was Akbar’s teacher.
25. ‘Mughalai’ means Mughal territories from which Chauth was claimed.
26. ‘Purana Quila‘ at Delhi was built by Sher Shah.
27. The Buland Darwaza was built to mark Akbar’s conquest of Gujarat.
28. The Sayyid dynasty of the Delhi sultanate is so-called because its founder and his successors were descendants of the prophet Muhammad.
29. Akbar defeated Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat
30. The portion of the actual produce fixed as the state’s share under the Zabti System of Mughals was one-third.
31. Amir Khusru witnessed the reigns of eight Delhi Sultans.
32. Akbar was the first Indian ruler to organize the Haj pilgrimage at the expense of the State.
33. Gulbadan Begum wrote a historical account during the Mughal Period.
34. The Medieval Indian Literary work ‘Darbar -e- Akbari‘ was written by Muhammad Hussain.
35. The number of provinces or Mandalams in the Chola Empire was
36. Shiqdar was in charge of a Pargana.
37. The method of revenue assessment related to the Vijayanagar Empire was ‘Sardeshmukhi‘.
38. Banda Bahadur, a Sikh leader who led a revolt against the Mughals after the assassination of Guru Gobind Singh, was captured and executed during the reign of Farrukh Siyar.
39. Humayun restored his Indian Kingdom with the help of the ruler of Turkey.
40. Aurangazeb built the ”Bibi Ka Maqbara”.
41. Gulbadan Begum wrote the Humayun Nama.
42. Sikandar Lodi laid the foundation of a new town where the modern city of Agra stands.
43. The famous historical monument, Atala Mosque is associated with the Sharqi rulers.
44. The foreign traveller who visited India during the Vijayanagara period was Nicolo Conti.
45. Moti Masjid in the Red Fort, Delhi was constructed by Aurangzeb.
46. Mughal Emperor at the time of Ahmad Shah Abdali’s invasion of India is Shah Alam I.
47. Shivaji introduced Land Tax, Chauth, Sardeshmukhi
48. Abdul Hamid Lahori is the author of Padshah Nama.
49. Muhammad Shah was the last Mughal emperor to sit on the Peacock Throne.
50. Bahadurshah II was the last Mughal Emperor.
51. Babur took great interest in laying out gardens than Other Mughal Emperors.
52. Hemanta Sen was the founder of the Sena dynasty.
53. Dharmapala founded Vikramashila University.
54. Gopala founded the Pala Empire.
55. The revolts of Jats and Satnamis fought during Aurangzeb’s period had a peasant agrarian background.
56. Khafi Khan wrote the history of Aurangzeb’s reign in total secrecy because of the emperor’s total opposition to it. The name of the historical work was Muntakhab -Al-Lubab.
57. The Delhi Sultanate reached its maximum geographical limits during the reign of Muhammad – bin – Tughlaq.
58. The famous fashion festival of Nauroz was introduced by Balban.
59. Advaita Veda or the doctrine of non – dualism was founded by Adi Shankaracharya.
60. Humayun brought the famous Persian Painter named Khwaja Abdus Samad to India.
61. Qutab – Ud – Din – Aibak built the famous mosque Adhai Dinka Jhonpra.
62. Amir Khusrau wrote Tughlaqnama.
63. Moroccan Traveller Ibn Battuta visited India during the reign of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
64. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple of Medieval India is dedicated to Lord
65. The book ‘Chachnama‘ described the Arab invasion of Sindh for the very first time.
66. Hasan Nizami was the author of the book Tajul Maasir.
67. Abu Nasr Utbi was the author of the book Kitab-i-Yamini.
68. Pushtimarg, a Vaishnav sect of Hinduism was founded by Vallabhacharya.
69. Pictorial mosaic work using semi-precious stones are called Pietra dura.
70. Amir Khusrau wrote the famous book Kitab – Ul – Hind.
71. Mughal Emperor Aurangazeb was a good Veena player.
72. Nakhshabi was the author of the famous Persian series of 52 stories Tutinama.
73. Nimbarkacharya propagated the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitadvaita.
74. The famous book Padmavat has written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi.
75. Atla Masjid built by Sultan Ibrahim is located at Jaunpur.
76. The caves and rock-cut temples at Ellora are Hindu, Buddhist and Jain.
77. Surdas was a disciple of Saint Vallabhacharya.
78. Tukaram, Namdev and Eknath are Saints of the Varkari sect.
79. Bhakta Tukaram was a contemporary of Mughal ruler Jahangir.
80. Mughal paintings reached their Zenith of progress during the reign of
81. During the reign of Jahangir use of Halo or Divine Lights was started in Paintings.
82. Humayun constructed a new city called Din Panah on the bank of the Yamuna River.
83. The famous Shalimar Bagh of Srinagar was built by Jahangir.
84. Hamza – Nama paintings were produced during the reign of Akbar
85. Sakhi, Sabad and Ramaini were the notable works of Kabir.
86. Allaudin – Khilji built the famous Alai Darwaza.
87. Moinuddin Chishti established the Chishti order in India.
88. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah built the famous Charminar of Hyderabad.
89. Amir Khusarau was famously known as Tuti- e-Hindustan.
90. Bengali Poet Maladhar Basu was conferred with the title of Gunaraj Khan in the Sultanate period.
91. Ratha temples at Mahabalipuram were built during the reign of Narasimhavarman I.
92. The seven pagodas of Mahabalipuram are a witness to the art patronised by the Pallavas.
93. Tamil poet Kamban wrote Ramayana in the Tamil language.
94. Brihadeeshwara Temple at Thanjavur built by Raja Raja Chola I is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
95. Famous scholar Bilhana wrote Vikramankadeva Charita.
96. Famous Saint Ramanuja wrote Sri-Bhasya.
97. The British parliament was the Supreme body in Britain at the time of the commencement of the Government of India Act 1858.
98. Keshav Chandra Sen started the Indian Reforms Association.
99. Queen Victoria was the monarch of Britain at the time of the commencement of the Government of India Act 1858.
100. The Government of India Act 1858 was passed by the parliament of the United Kingdom on August 2, 1858.
101. As per the Government of India Act 1858, 15 members were appointed to assist the secretary of state for India.
102. The Simon Commission was established to enquire into the working of the Government of India Act 1919 and to suggest further reforms in the system of Administration.
103. The British government appointed the Simon Commission in November 1927. Simon Commission was opposed because all its members were the
104. The activities of the Swaraj Party had induced the British Government to review the working of the diarchy system introduced by the Montague – Chelmsford reforms.
105. Poona Pact was signed in Yarvada Jail in Pune between Madan Mohan Malaviya and Dr Ambedkar. This act increased the number of seats reserved for the depressed class from 71 to 147.
106. Gandhi – Irwin pact was taken place on March 5, 1931.
107. The Kailasa temple, one of the largest rock-cut ancient Hindu temples located at Ellora was built by Krishna I.
108. Sanskrit Poet Jayadeva wrote the famous book ‘Geet Govinda‘.
109. Adilabad Fort and the city of Jahanapanah were built by Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
110. ‘Khanqah‘ means the place where Sufi mystics lived.
111. Birbal was the first initiated disciple of Akbar’s Din – I – Ilahi.
112. Quwwat – Ul- Islam Mosque was built by Qutubuddin Aibak.
113. Historian Abdul Hamid Lahori was in the court of Shahjahan.
114. Shahjahan had completed the annexation of Ahmednagar.
115. Hawkins was the first Englishman to visit Jahangir’s court
116. The full name of Jahangir was Nuruddin Md. Jahangir. Jahangir had ended a long drawn-out struggle with Mewar. Mahabat Khan revolted against Jahangir and captured Jahangir and his wife Nurjahan at Lahore.
117. Jahangir promulgated twelve edicts for the general welfare and a better govt to mark his coronation. He composed verses in Persian and sang Hindi lyrics.
118. The Persian ruler who besieged Qandahar in Jahangir’s reign
was Shah Abbas.
119. During Mughal King Shahjahan’s reign, there was a large-scale famine in Gujarat and Deccan.
120. Hindi poet Chintamani, poet laureate Jagannath Pandit and Asaf Khan-the wazir adorned Shahjahan’s court.
121. Aurangazeb adopted the titles Alamgir, Padshah and Ghazi
122. Ramayana was translated into Persian at Akbar’s court by Badayuni.
123. Khwaja Abdus Samad was the master of the imperial mint at Delhi during the reign of Akbar.
124. Aurangazeb’s statement “I came alone and I am going alone. I have not done well to the country and the people and of the future, there is no hope”.
125. Shaista Khan had succeeded Mir Jumla as Governor of Bengal in the reign of Aurangzeb.
126. In the war of succession, Roshanara supported Aurangazeb.
127. Aurangazeb discontinued the practice of inscribing the Kalima on the coins.
128. Guru Nanak founded the faith on a ritual-free, simple “Sat Shri Akal” or the worship of God and truth.
129. Kabir was the disciple of Ramananda and the most liberal among medieval Indian reformers.
130. Ramananda worshipped Ram and Sita but preached the oneness of God and the doctrine of Bhakti to everyone. He dismissed the caste system and untouchability, simplified the rules of worship and made the rigidity of the Varnashrama tradition milder.
131. Bhakti Movement originated as a reaction against caste division, untouchability and ritualism in India. Devotion was the pivotal point in the Bhakti cult in uniting the human soul with God.
132. Surdas was the disciple of Vallabhacharya.
133. Ramanuja preaches Visishtadvaita.
134. Sankara had given the doctrine of Advaita or Monism.
135. Pallavas, Pandyas and Chola dynasties under the Saivaite Nayanmars and Vaishnavaite Alwars Preached the Bhakti cult.
136. Nirguna is the concept of a formless God.
137. Gaudiya Sampradaya is an intensely emotional form of Hinduism that flourished from16th century mainly in Bengal and Eastern Orissa.
138. Bhakti is derived from the root Bhaj which means “divide”.
139. Sri Ramanuja Acharya was an Indian Philosopher and is recognized as the most important saint of Sri Vaishnavism.
140. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in the 16th century was from Bengal.
141. Divya Prabandha is the name of the collection of hymns of Alvar Saints”.
142. The Compositions of Kabir include Bijak, Sakhi Granth, Kabir Granthawali and Anurag Sagar.
143. Vishvambhara Mishra was the original name of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
144. Kabir was the disciple of Ramananda.
145. Saint and reformer of Bengal named Chaitanya popularized the Krishna
146. Gnandeva wrote a commentary on the Bhagvat Gita called Gnaneswari.
147. The Bhakti Saint Narasi popularised Vaishnava Cult in Gujarat.
148. Bhakti Saint Tulsidas created Vinaya-patrika and Kavitavali.
149. Krishnadasa Kaviraja wrote the biography of Chaitanya.
150. Rudra Sampradaya School was founded by Vallabhacharya.
151. Nimbarka wrote Vedanta-Parijatasourabha, a commentary on the Brahma Sutra in simple language. He also wrote Dasa Sloki which deals with three realities Brahma, soul and matter.
152. Chaitanya wrote Shiksha Ashtak which was called the cream of the Shastras.
153. The Bhakti cult Saivaite Nayanmars and Vaishnavaite Alwars Prached under the Pallavas, Pandyas and Cholas.
154. Babur (1526-1530 AD)
1. Founder of the Mughal Empire.
2. Introduced gunpowder in India.
3. Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat (1526 AD).
4. Defeated Rana Sanga at the Battle of Khanwa (1527 AD).
5. Defeated Medini Rai of Chanderi at the Battle of Chanderi (1528 AD).
6. Wrote Tuzuk-1-Babri in Turkish.
155. Humayun (1526-1556 AD)-
1. Made Dinpanah at Delhi as the second capital.
2. Fought two battles with Sher Shah Suri Battle of Chausa (1539 AD) and Battle of Kanauj (1540 AD) and was defeated.
3. Died due to falling from his library buildings stairs in 1556 AD.
4. His half-sister Gulbadan Begum wrote Humayun-Nama.
156. Akbar (1566-1565 AD)
1. Introduced the Mansabdari system to organise the nobility and army.
2. Constructed Buland Darwaza.
3. Ralph Fitch was the 1st Englishman to visit Akbar’s court in 1585.
4. Abolished Jaziya; believed in Sulh-i Kul (peace to all).
5. Built Ibadat Khana (Hall of Prayer) at Fatehpur Sikri.
6. Issued “Degree of Infallibility” in 1579.
7. Formulated religious order Din-i-Elahi (1582 AD)
8. Nine Gems of his court (a) Birbal (Mahesh Das) (b) Tansen (Tanna Mishra) (c) Faizi (d) Maharaja Man Singh (e) Fakir Aziao din (f) Mirza Aziz Koka (g)
Todar Mal (h) Abdur Rahim Khani-Khanaa (i) Abul Fazl.
157. Jahangir (1605-1627 AD)-
1. Executed fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Dev.
2. Established Zanjir-i-Adal at Agra Fort for the seeker of royal justice.
3. Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court.
4. Abdul Hassan, Ustad Mansur and Bishandas were the famous painters of his court.
158. Shahjahan (1628-1658 AD)-
1. Two Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier and the Italian adventurer Manucci visited his court.
2. Built Moti Masjid and Taj Mahal at Agra, Juma Masjid and Redfort at Delhi.
3. Annexed Ahmadnagar while Bijapur and Golkonda accepted his lordship.
159. Aurangazeb (1658-1707 AD)
1. Great scholar of Islamic theology and Jurisprudence. He appointed a board of Ulema to compile authoritative passages from the standard of Hanafi Fiqh (Fatawa-ul-Alamgir) for the guidance of qazis known as ‘Fatawat’- i – Alamgiri’ which was completed in 1672.
2. Important historical works during his reign Mutakhab-ul-Lubab by Khafi-Khan; Alamgir Namah by Mirza Muhammad Kazim, Masir-i-Alamgiri by Muhammad Saqi, Fatuhat-i-Alamgiri by Iswar Das
3. Executed ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur in 1675 AD
4. called as Darvesh or a Zinda Fakir
5. Forbade Sathi Pratha
6. Built Biwi ka Makbara on the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durani at Aurangabad; Moti Masjid in Red Fort at Delhi, Jami or Badshahi mosque at Lahore.
160. Bahadur Shah I (1707 -1712 AD)
1. Popularly known as Shah Alam I and called Shahi-i- Bekhabar by Khafi Khan
due to his appeasement of parties by grants of titles and rewards.
2. Ascended himself to the throne in 1707 after killing his two brothers and defeating Kam Baksh in the battle of Jajau. He was the last Mughal who enjoyed all the authority in real terms.
3. Granted the right to collect Sardesh Mukhi of Deccan but not Chauth to the
161. Jahandar Shah (1712-1713 AD).
1. Gave the title of ‘Mirza Raja’ to Jai Singh of Malwa and `Maha Raja’ to Ajit Singh of Marwar.
2. Encouraged the Ijara system (the revenue farming/ contract farming and abolished Jazia).
3. First Mughal ruler who killed by the Sayyid brothers -Abdullah Khan and Hussain
Ali (were the Hindustani party leaders) in captivity.
162. Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719 AD).
1. Known as ‘Sahid – iMazlum’ and son of Azim-us-Shah.
2. Assigned the duty of Deccan’s governor to Chin Qulich Khan who was
better known as ‘Nizam-Ul-Mulk’ and later laid the foundation of the independent state of Hyderabad.
3. Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath visited in his court to take a grant for collecting Chauth and Sardesh Mukhi on Maratha land.
163. Muhammad Shah (1719-1748 AD).
1. His name was Roshan Akhtar. Also called Rangila.
2. Maratha under Baji Rao for the first in Mughal history raided in Delhi.
3. Nadirshah of Persia invaded with the help of Sadat Khan who defeated the Mughal army at the battle of Karnal.
164. Ahmad Shah (1748-1754 AD).
1. Ahmed Shah Abdali, the former general of Nadir Shah who invaded India five times during their reign.
2. He was overthrown by his wazir Imad-UlMalik and placed Alamgir II as ruler.
165. Alamgir (1754-1759 AD).
1. Called `Azizuddin’.
2. During his reign, the Battle of Plassey took place.
3. He was overthrown by his Wazir Imad-ul-Malik and Placed Shah Alam II as ruler.
166. Shah Alam II (1759-1806 AD).
1. Popularly known as `Ali Gauhar’ who was defeated in the Battle of Buxar in 1764 AD.
2. During his reign, the Third Battle of Panipat took place.
3. Till 1772 he gave all his Diwani rights to Bihar, Bengal and Orissa but after 1772 with the help of Mahaji Scindia, he gets back all his Diwani rights.
4. First Mughal ruler who becomes East Indian Company Pensioner.
167. Akbar II (1806-1837 AD).
1. First Mughal ruler who was under British protection.
2. During his tenure, Mughal Empire Shrinks to Redfort only.
168. Bahadur Shah II (1837-1857 AD)
1. He was the son of Akar II and Rajput Princess Lal Bai and also was the last ruler of the Mughal Empire.
2. During his reign, the 1857 revolt took place; he behaved to Rangoon as a captive where he died in 1862. He was a very good Urdu poet and his pen
name was Zafar.
169. The Mughal Dynasty:- The Mughal emperors of India were the successors of the Mongolian rulers, Genghis Khan and Timur. It was the Europeans who named the dynasty ‘Mughal‘ in the 16th century.
170. Important officials and their duties in the central administration of the Sultanate period:
Wazir – Revenue
Mamalik – Military
Chief Sadr – Judiciary
Divan-i-Insha – Royal correspondence.
171. The local administrative divisions and their respective officers of the Sultanate period.
Province – Muqti/Wali
Shiq – Shiqdar
Pargana – Amil
Village – Muqaddam
172. Important officers and their responsibilities in the central administration during the Mughal period:
Wakil – Prime Minister
Wazir – Revenue
Sadr – Judiciary
Mir Bakshi – Military
173. The Local administrative divisions and the officers concerned during the Mughal period.
Subah – Subedar
Sarkar – Faujdar
Pargana – Shiqdar
Village – Chowdhari
Town – Kotwal
174. The Cholas were the greatest naval power of the Medieval period. The Bay of Bengal was known as the Lake of the Cholas. The Cholas extended their empire up to Malaysia, Indonesia, Ceylon, etc. The major reason for this was their naval supremacy.
175. The construction of the Raja Rajeswara Temple at Tanjore and the conquest of Sri Lanka were made during the period of Raja Raja.
176. Rajendra Chola adopted the title ‘Gangai Konda Chola‘ in commemoration of his victory over the Ganges.
177. For the sake of administration, the Chola kings divided the country into Mandalams, Valanadus, Nadus and Kottams. A group of autonomous villages formed a Kottam. Two councils known as the Ur and the Sabha functioned for the purpose of village administration.
178. The orders of the Chola king were circulated to other officers by an important officer known as ‘Olainayakam‘.
179. The Vijayanagara Empire was ruled by four dynasties Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu. Krishna Deva Raya was the ruler of the Tuluva dynasty.
179. The central administration of the Vijayanagara Empire was called the Nayankara system and the local administration was the Ayyagar system.
180. The day-to-day administration of the village was done by the officers known as ‘Ayyagars‘, who inherited the post. This administrative system is known as Ayyagar System. The position of Ayyagars in the village administration was equal to that of the Nayaks in the central administration.
181. The coronation of Shivaji was held in 1674 at Raigarh Fort, after which he assumed the title, Chathrapathi.
182. The council called Ashtapradhan, helped the Maratha ruler Shivaji in his administration.
183. Maratha kingdom was further divided into two: ‘Swarajya’ and ‘Mogalai’. The Swarajya was the territory of the Marathas whereas the Mogalai was the region annexed to the kingdom.
184. Ibn Battuta, a traveller to India in the 14th century described the agricultural progress of India, in his work ‘Qitab-ul-Rihla‘.
185. Abul Fazl describes different varieties of paddy cultivated in Delhi and Bengal. In ‘Ain-i-Akbari’, he attests that thirty-nine varieties of crops were cultivated in Agra.
186. The historical sources of the Chola period confirm that there were four types of farmlands.
Brahmadeya: The land received by Brahmins as a gift
Devadana: The land donated to temples
Vellan Vakai: The land owned by peasants
Pallichandam: The land donated to the Jain institutions
187. The earliest reference to charkha can be found in Futuh-us-Salatin written by Isami in 1350.
188. In South India, the horse traders were known as Kuthirachettis.
189. The direct trade between India and Europe began with the arrival of Vasco da Gama at Calicut in 1498.
190. Ullookh and Dava were the postal systems that prevailed in India.
191. An efficient coinage existed in the Sultanate period. Tanka, the silver coin and Jital, the copper coin were in use at that time.
192. According to the historical sources of the Mughal period, there were two types of peasants-Khud-Kashta and Pahi-Kashta.
193. The castes in South India were broadly divided into Idankai and Valankai. Those who engaged in trade and handicrafts were known as Idankai castes and those who engaged in the agriculture sector were known as Valankai castes.
194. There were several women who had adorned higher political and social positions. Noorjahan, the wife of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and Sultana Rasiya were excellent administrators. Gulbadan Begum (sister of Humayun), Jahanara (daughter of Shah Jahan), and Jeeja Bai (the mother of Shivaji) were women who held higher positions.