“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers…

An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.
30/05/2024 1:22 PM

“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers……….

The Knowledge Library

Logical reasoning includes,

• Number Series
• Letter and Symbol Series
• Analogies
• Verbal Classification
• Artificial Language
• Essential Part
• Logical Problems
• Logical Games
• Verbal Reasoning
• Matching Definitions
• Making Judgments
• Analyzing Arguments
• Statement and Assumption
• Statement and Conclusion
• Theme Detection
• Cause and Effect
• Statement and Argument
• Logical Deduction

Number Series in Logical Reasoning

1.  Look at this series: 36, 34, 30, 28, 24, … What number should come next?

A. 22
B. 26
C. 23
D. 20

Answer: Option A. This is an alternating number of subtraction series. First, 2 is subtracted, then 4, then 2, and so on.

2. Complete series 1,6,13,22,33,..

A. 46
B. 48
C. 49
D. 51

Answer: A- Pattern is +5, +7, +9, +11

So next number will be +13
=> 33+13 = 46

3.Look at this series: 2, 1, (1/2), (1/4), … What number should come next?
A. (1/3)

B. (1/8)
C. (2/8)
D. (1/16)

Answer: B- It’s a division series. Every number is half of the previous number. The number is divided by 2 successively to get the next result. 4/2 = 2. 2/2 = 1. 1/2 = ½. (1/2)/2 = ¼. (1/4)/2 = 1/8 and so on.

4. Complete the series 3, 7, 23, 95, ?

A. 62
B. 128
C. 479
D. 575
Answer: C- 3( *2 +1)→ 7( *3 +2) → 23( *4 +3)→ 95( *5 +4)→ 479.
5.Look at this series: 80, 10, 70, 15, 60, … What number should come next?
A. 20

B. 25
C. 30
D. 50
Answer: A- This is an alternating addition and subtraction series. In the first pattern, 10 is subtracted from each number to arrive at the next. In the second, 5 is added to each number to arrive at the next.

6. Complete the series 7, 26, 63, 124, 215, 342, ?

A. 391
B. 511
C. 481
D. 421
Answer: B- The terms are given in a series
(23 -1) = 7
(33 -1) = 26
(43 -1) = 63
(53 -1) = 124
(63 -1) = 215
(73 -1) = 342
So, the missing term is,
(83 -1) = 511.

7.Look at this series: 12, 11, 13, 12, 14, 13, … What number should come next?
A. 10

B. 16
C. 13
D. 15

Answer: D- This is an alternating number of subtraction series. First, 1 is subtracted, then 2 is added.
8. Complete the series 165, 195, 255, 285, 345, ?

A. 390
B. 420
C. 435
D. 375
Answer: C- Each number of given series is 15 multiplied by a prime number.
15*11, 15*13, 15*17, 15*19, 15*23. . . . So, Missing number is
15*29 = 435.

9. In the following number series a wrong number is given. Find out the wrong number.
150, 450, 750, 1060, 1350, 1650, 1950

A. 1060
B. 1950
C. 450
D. 1350
Answer: A- By adding 300 to each term, we get the next term. 1060 is wrong term. It should be 1050.
10. Complete the series 5690, 5121, 4552, 3983, 3414, 2845, ?

A. 2276
B. 2516
C. 2356
D. 2456
Answer: A- By subtracting 569, we get the next term.
Required number,
= 2845-569
= 2276.

Letter and Symbol Series in Logical Reasoning

1. SCD, TEF, UGH, ____, WKL
A. CMN

B. UJI

C. VIJD. IJT

Explanation:
There are two alphabetical series here. The first series is with the first letters only: STUVW. The second series involves the remaining letters: CD, EF, GH, IJ, KL.
2. ELFA, GLHA, ILJA, _____, MLNA
A. OLPA

B. KLMA
C. LLMA
D. KLLA

Explanation:
The second and forth letters in the series, L and A, are static. The first and third letters consist of an alphabetical order beginning with the letter E.

3.

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

This is an alternating series. In the first segment, the letter “E” faces right, then down, then right. In the second segment, the letters all face down. To follow this pattern, in the fourth segment, the letters must all face up.
4.

A. 1
B. 2
C.3
D. 4

Explanation:
Notice that in each segment, the figures are all the same shape, but the one in the middle is larger than the two on either side. Also, notice that one of the figures is shaded and that this shading alternates first right and then left. To continue this pattern in the third segment, you will look for a square. Choice b is correct because this choice will put the large square between the two smaller squares, with the shading on the right.
5. ZA5, Y4B, XC6, W3D, _____
A. E7V
B. V2E
C. VE5
D. VE7

Explanation:
There are three series to look for here. The first letters are alphabetical in reverse: Z, Y, X, W, V. The second letters are in alphabetical order, beginning with A. The number series is as follows: 5, 4, 6, 3, 7.

Analogies in Logical Reasoning

1. CUP : LIP :: BIRD : ?
A. GRASS

B. FOREST
C. BEAK
D. BUSH

Answer: C. BEAK. You drink out of a cup with your lips. Similarly, birds bite grass with their beaks.

2. Paw : Cat :: Hoof : ?
A. Lamb

B. Horse
C. Elephant
D. Tiger

Answer: B. Horse. Cat’s feet are called paws and horse’s are called hoofs.

3. Safe : Secure :: Protect :
A. Lock
B. Guard
C. Sure
D. Conserve

4. Melt : Liquid :: Freeze :
A. Ice

B. Solid
C. Condense
D. Push

5. Parts : Strap :: Wolf :
A. Flow

B. Animal
C. Wood
D. Fox
Verbal Classification in Logical Reasoning

1.Which word does NOT belong with the others?
A. index

B. glossary
C. chapter
D. book

Answer: D. Book. Rest are all parts of a book.

2.Which word is the odd man out?
A. trivial

B. unimportant
C. important
D. insignificant

Answer: C. Important. Remaining are synonyms of each other.

3.Which word does NOT belong with the others?
A. wing

B. fin
C. beak
D. rudder

Answer: C. Beak. Rest are parts of an aero plane.

4.Which word is the odd man out?
A. hate

B. fondness
C. liking
D. attachment

Answer: A. hate. Rest are positive emotions.
5.Pick the odd man out?
A. just

B. fair
C. equitable
D. biased
Answer: D. Biased. The others signify honesty.

Artificial Language in Logical Reasoning

1. Which word could mean “ceiling tile”?

✓gorbltusl
✓flurgorbl
✓arthflur
✓pixn arth

2. Which word could mean “cloud nine”?

✓lesh srench
✓och hapl
✓hap loch
✓hapl resbo

3. Which word could mean “houseguest”?

✓morpirhunde
✓beelmoki
✓quathunde
✓clakquat

4. Some translations: krekinblaf means workforce ; dritakrekin means groundwork ; krekinalti means workplace. Which word could mean “someplace”?

✓moropalti
✓krekindrita
✓altiblaf
✓dritaalti

5. Here are some words translated from an artificial language. dionot means oak tree; blyonot means oak leaf; blycrin means maple leaf. Which word could mean “maple syrup”?

✓blymuth
✓hupponot
✓patricrin
✓crinweel

Essential Part in Logical Reasoning

1.  harvest
A. autumn

B. stockpile
C. tractor
D. crop

Explanation:
To harvest something, one must have a crop, which is the essential element for this item. Autumn (choice a) is not the only time crops are harvested. There may not be enough of a crop to stockpile (choice b), and you can harvest crops without a tractor (choice c).
2.desert

A. cactus
B. arid
C. oasis
D. flat

Explanation:
A desert is an arid tract of land. Not all deserts are flat (choice d). Not all deserts have cacti or oases (choices a and c).

3.ovation
A. outburst

B. bravo
C. applause
D. encore

Explanation:
An ovation is prolonged, enthusiastic applause, so applause is necessary to an ovation. An outburst (choice a) may take place during an ovation; “bravo” (choice b) may or may not be uttered; and an encore (choice d) would take place after an ovation.

4.antique
A. rarity

B. artifact
C. aged
D. prehistoric

Explanation:
An antique is something that belongs to, or was made in, an earlier period. It may or may not be a rarity (choice a)
5.monopoly
A. corrupt

B. exclusive
C. rich
D. gigantic

Explanation:
The essential part of a monopoly is that it involves exclusive ownership or control.

Logical Games in Logical Reasoning

1. If a legislature decides to fund agricultural subsidy programs, national radio, and a small business loan program, what 2 other programs can they fund?

A. harbor improvements and school music program
B. harbor improvements and international airport
C. hurricane preparedness and international airport
D. hurricane preparedness and school music program
E. harbor improvements and hurricane preparedness

2. Kevin, Joseph, and Nicholas are 3 brothers. If the following statements are all true, which of them is the youngest?

✓Kevin is the oldest.
✓Nicholas is not the oldest.
✓Joseph is not the youngest.
A. Joseph
B. Kevin
C. Nicholas
D. Both Joseph and Nicholas

Questions are based on the following information:

Mazzini, an Italian specialty restaurant stays open every Monday to Saturday but is closed on all Sundays. On Mondays, only lunch is served, as well as on Tuesdays and Thursdays. On Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays, just dinner is served. The restaurant’s floors are polished and plants are watered only on days that Quantum is open for business, according the following schedule:
✓Plants are watered two days each week, but never on consecutive days and never on the same day that floors are polished.
✓Floors are polished on Monday and two other days each week, but never on consecutive days and never on the same day that plants are watered.

3. According to a schedule, the restaurant’s floors are polished on either…

A. Tuesday or Wednesday
B. Tuesday or Thursday
C. Wednesday or Thursday
D. Thursday or Friday
E. Thursday or Saturday

4. If dinner is served on the same day as plants are watered, which of the following is correct?

A. Plants are watered on Tuesday.
B. Floors are polished on Thursday.
C. Plants are watered on Wednesday.
D. Floors are polished on Wednesday.
E. Plants are watered on Saturday.

5. Assume that floors are polished on consecutive days but all other scheduling policies are untampered. For how many of the days can it be determined whether plants are watered and floors are polished?A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five
E. six

Logical Problems in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve: Read the below passage carefully and answer the questions:

At a small company, parking spaces are reserved for the top executives: CEO, president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer with the spaces lined up in that order. The parking lot guard can tell at a glance if the cars are parked correctly by looking at the color of the cars. The cars are yellow, green, purple, red, and blue, and the executives names are Alice, Bert, Cheryl, David, and Enid.

* The car in the first space is red.
* A blue car is parked between the red car and the green car.
* The car in the last space is purple.
* The secretary drives a yellow car.
* Alice’s car is parked next to David’s.
* Enid drives a green car.
* Bert’s car is parked between Cheryl’s and Enid’s.
* David’s car is parked in the last space.

1. Who is the secretary?
A. Enid

B. David
C. Cheryl
D. Alice

Explanation:
Cheryl cannot be the secretary, since she’s the CEO, nor can Enid, because she drives a green car, and the secretary drives a yellow car. David’s, the purple car, is in the last space. Alice is the secretary, because her car is parked next to David’s, which is where the secretary’s car is parked.
2. Who is the CEO ?

A. Alice
B. Cheryl
C. Bert
D. David

Explanation:
The CEO drives a red car and parks in the first space. Enid drives a green car; Bert’s car is not in the first space; David’s is not in the first space, but the last. Alice’s car is parked next to David’s, so Cheryl is the CEO.

3. What color is the vice president’s car?

A. green

B. yellow

C. blue

D. purple

Explanation:
The vice president’s car cannot be red, because that is the CEO’s car, which is in the first space. Nor can it be purple, because that is the treasurer’s car, which is in the last space, or yellow, because that is the secretary’s. The president’s car must be blue, because it is parked between a red car (in the first space) and a green car, which must be the vice president’s.

Five roommates Randy, Sally, Terry, Uma, and Vernon each do one housekeeping task mopping, sweeping, laundry, vacuuming, or dusting one day a week, Monday through Friday.

* Vernon does not vacuum and does not do his task on Tuesday.
* Sally does the dusting, and does not do it on Monday or Friday.
* The mopping is done on Thursday.
* Terry does his task, which is not vacuuming, on Wednesday.
* The laundry is done on Friday, and not by Uma.
* Randy does his task on Monday.

1. What task does Terry do on Wednesday?

A. vacuuming
B. dusting
C. mopping
D. sweeping

Explanation:
Terry does not dust, mop, do laundry, or vacuum. Therefore, Terry does the sweeping on Wednesday.
2. What task does Vernon do?
A. vacuuming

B. dusting
C. laundry
D. mopping

Explanation:
Vernon does not vacuum, dust, or sweep. Randy does the vacuuming, Sally does the dusting, Terry does the sweepingâ€”leaving laundry and mopping for Uma and Vernon. Uma does not do laundry; therefore, she must mop, and Vernon does the laundry.
3. When does Sally do the dusting?
A. Monday

B. Tuesday
C. Wednesday
D. Thursday

Explanation:
Dusting must be done on Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday. However, the mopping is done on Thursday, and Terry does his task on Wednesday. Therefore, Sally does the dusting on Tuesday.
3. What day does Uma do her task?
A. Monday

B. Tuesday
C. Wednesday
D. Thursday

Explanation:
Uma does the mopping, which is done on Thursday.

Verbal Reasoning in Logical Reasoning

1. The ‘A’ state government has chalked out a plan for the underdeveloped ‘B’ district where 66% of the funds will be placed in the hands of a committee of local representatives.
Courses of action:

I. The ‘A’ state government should decide guidelines and norms for the functioning of the committee.
II. Other state government may follow similar plan if directed by the Central government.

A. If only I follows
B. If only II follows
C. If either I or II follows
D. If neither I nor II follows
E. If both I and II follow

2. The car dealer found that there was a tremendous response for the new XYZ’s car booking with long queues of people complaining about the duration of business hours and arrangements. Courses of action:

I. People should make their arrangement of lunch and snacks while going for car XYZ’s booking and be ready to spend several hours.
II. Arrangement should be made for more booking desks and increase business hours to serve more people in less time.

A. If only I follows
B. If only II follows
C. If either I or II follows
D. If neither I nor II follows
E. If both I and II follow

3. The ‘M’ state government has decided hence forth to award the road construction contracts through open tenders only. Courses of action:
I. The ‘M’ state will not be able to get the work done swiftly as it will have to go through tender and other procedures.
II. Hence forth the quality of roads constructed may be far better.

A. If only I follows
B. If only II follows
C. If either I or II follows
D. If neither I nor II follows
E. If both I and II follow

4. Alert villagers nabbed a group of bandits armed with murderous weapons. Courses of action:
I. The villagers should be provided sophisticated weapons.
II. The villagers should be rewarded for their courage and unity.

A. If only I follows
B. If only II follows
C. If either I or II follows
D. If neither I nor II follows
E. If both I and II follow

5. 10 coaches of a passenger train have got derailed and have blocked the railway track from both ends. Courses of action:I. The railway authorities should immediately send men and equipment and clear the spot
II. All the trains running in both directions should be diverted immediately via other routes.A. If only I follows
B. If only II follows
C. If either I or II follows
D. If neither I nor II follows
E. If both I and II follow

Matching Definitions in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve: Read each definition and all four choices carefully, and find the answer that provides the best example of the given definition.

1. Violating an Apartment Lease occurs when a tenant does something prohibited by the legally binding document that he or she has signed with a landlord. Which situation below is the best example of Violating an Apartment Lease?
A.
Tim has decided to move to another city, so he calls his landlord to tell him that he is not interested in renewing his lease when it expires next month.

B. Valerie recently lost her job and, for the last three months, has neglected to pay her landlord the monthly rent they agreed upon in writing when she moved into her apartment eight months ago.
C. Mark writes a letter to his landlord that lists numerous complaints about the apartment he has agreed to rent for two years.
D. Leslie thinks that her landlord is neglecting the building in which she rents an apartment. She calls her attorney to ask for advice.

Explanation:
Valerie signed a legally binding document that requires her to pay a monthly rent for her apartment and she has failed to do this for the last three months. Therefore, she has violated her apartment lease.
2. A Guarantee is a promise or assurance that attests to the quality of a product that is either (1) given in writing by the manufacturer or (2) given verbally by the person selling the product. Which situation below is the best example of a Guarantee?

A.Melissa purchases a DVD player with the highest consumer ratings in its category.
B. The salesperson advises Curt to be sure that he buys an air conditioner with a guarantee.
C.The local auto body shop specializes in refurbishing and selling used cars.
D. Lori buys a used digital camera from her coworker who says that she will refund Lori’s money if the camera’s performance is not of the highest quality.

Explanation:
Choices a, b, and c do not describe situations in which a product is guaranteed. Only choice d reflects a situation in which a seller attests to the quality of a product by giving the buyer a promise or assurance about its quality.

3. Erratic Behavior occurs when an individual acts in a manner that lacks consistency, regularity, and uniformity. Which situation below is the best example of Erratic Behavior?
A.
Julia cannot contain her anger whenever the subject of local politics is discussed.

B. Martin has just been told that he is being laid off. Before leaving his supervisor’s office, he punches a hole in the door.
C. Rhonda has visited the dealership several times, but she still cannot decide which car to buy.
D. In the past month, Jeffrey, who has been a model employee for three years, has repeatedly called in sick, forgotten important meetings, and been verbally abusive to colleagues.

Explanation:
Jeffrey’s recent behavior is clearly inconsistent and irregular.

4. Embellishing the Truth occurs when a person adds fictitious details or exaggerates facts or true stories. Which situation below is the best example of Embellishing the Truth?
A. Isabel goes to the theater, and the next day, she tells her coworkers she thought the play was excellent.

B. The realtor describes the house, which is eleven blocks away from the ocean, as prime waterfront property.
C. During the job interview, Fred, who has been teaching elementary school for ten years, describes himself as a very experienced teacher.
D. The basketball coach says it is likely that only the most talented players will get a college scholarship.

Explanation:
The realtor is using a clear exaggeration when she states that a house which is eleven blocks away from the ocean is prime waterfront property.
5. People speculate when they consider a situation and assume something to be true based on inconclusive evidence. Which situation below is the best example of Speculation ?
A. Francine decides that it would be appropriate to wear jeans to her new office on Friday after reading about “Casual Fridays” in her employee handbook.

B. Mary spends thirty minutes sitting in traffic and wishes that she took the train instead of driving.

C. After consulting several guidebooks and her travel agent, Jennifer feels confident that the hotel she has chosen is first-rate.
D. When Emily opens the door in tears, Theo guesses that she’s had a death in her family.

Explanation:
This is the only situation in which someone makes an assumption that is not based on conclusive evidence. Choices a and c reflect situations in which assumptions are made based on evidence. In choice b, Mary is not assuming anything to be true. She is simply wishing that she’d made a different decision.

Making Judgments in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve: Each question presents a situation and asks you to make a judgment regarding that particular circumstance. Choose an answer based on given information.

1. Eileen is planning a special birthday dinner for her husband’s 35th birthday. She wants the evening to be memorable, but her husband is a simple man who would rather be in jeans at a baseball game than in a suit at a fancy restaurant. Which restaurant below should Eileen choose?
A.
Alfredo’s offers fine Italian cuisine and an elegant Tuscan decor. Patrons will feel as though they’ve spent the evening in a luxurious Italian villa.

B. Pancho’s Mexican Buffet is an all-you-can-eat family style smorgasbord with the best tacos in town.

C. The Parisian Bistro is a four-star French restaurant where guests are treated like royalty. Chef Dilbert Olay is famous for his beef bourguignon.

D. Marty’s serves delicious, hearty meals in a charming setting reminiscent of a baseball clubhouse in honor of the owner,Marty Lester, a former major league baseball all-star

Explanation:
Since Eileen’s husband does not enjoy fancy restaurants, choices a and c can be ruled out. Choice b, although casual, doesn’t sound as though it would be the kind of special and memorable evening that Eileen is looking for. Choice d, which is owned by a former baseball star and is described as “charming” and “reminiscent of a baseball clubhouse”, sounds perfect for Eileen’s husband, who is described as a baseball fan and a man with simple tastes.
2.Mrs. Carson took a taxi to meet her three friends for lunch. They were waiting for her outside the restaurant when she pulled up in the car. She was so excited to see her friends that she left her tote bag in the taxi. As the taxi pulled away, she and her friends took notice of the license plate number so they would be able to identify the car when they called the taxi company.

#1: The four women seem to agree that the plate starts out with the letter J.

#2: Three of them agree that the plate ends with 12L.

#3: Three of them think that the second letter is X, and a different three think that the third letter is K.

The four license plate numbers below represent what each of the four women thinks she saw. Which one is most likely the license plate number of the taxi?

A. JXK 12L
B. JYK 12L
C. JXK 12I
D. JXX 12L

Explanation:
The four women seem to agree that the plate starts out with the letter J. Three of them agree that the plate ends with 12L. Three of them think that the second letter is X, and a different three think that the third letter is K. The plate description that has all of these common elements is “Option A”.

3.Mark is working with a realtor to find a location for the toy store he plans to open in his town. He is looking for a place that is either in, or not too far from, the center of town and one that would attract the right kind of foot traffic. Which of the following locations should Mark’s realtor call to his attention?

A. a storefront in a new high-rise building near the train station in the center of town whose occupants are mainly young, childless professionals who use the train to commute to their offices each day.

B. a little shop three blocks away from the town’s main street, located across the street from an elementary school and next door to an ice cream store

C. a stand-alone storefront on a quiet residential street ten blocks away from the town’s center

D. a storefront in a small strip mall located on the outskirts of town that is also occupied by a pharmacy and a dry cleaner

Explanation:
This option is both near the center of town and in a location (near a school and an ice cream store) where children and their parents are sure to be around. This is the only option that meets both of Mark’s requirements.

4.The neighborhood block association has received many complaints about people knocking on doors and soliciting money for an unknown charity organization even though door-to-door solicitation is prohibited by local laws. Three residents have provided descriptions of individuals who have come to their door asking for money.

Solicitor #1 is a white male, 20-25 years old, 5’9″, 145 pounds, with very short brown hair. He was wearing a dark blue suit and carrying a brown leather briefcase.

Solicitor #2 is a white male, 25-30 years old, 6’2″, 200 pounds, with a shaved-head. He was wearing a red T-shirt and jeans.

Solicitor #3 is a white male, approximately 23 years old, 5’10”, slight build, with short brown hair. He was wearing a blue suit.

Three days after the block association meet- ing, a resident noticed a man knocking on doors in the neighborhood and phoned the police to report the illegal activity. This solic- itor was described as follows:

Solicitor #4 is a white male, 22 years old, 140 pounds, about 5’10”, with short brown hair. He was carrying a briefcase and wearing a dark suit.

Based on this description, which of the three solicitations was also likely carried out by Solicitor #4?

A. #1, #2, and #3

B. #1, but not #2 and #3

C. #1 and #3, but not #2

D. #1 and #2, but not #3

Explanation:
The solicitor described as #2 has a shaved head and is much taller and heavier than the solicitors described as #1 and #3. Therefore, choices a and d, which include #2, can be ruled out. Solicitors #1, #3, and #4 have such similar descriptions that the correct answer is clearly choice c.

5.Mrs. Jansen recently moved to Arizona. She wants to fill her new backyard with flowering plants. Although she is an experienced gardener, she isn’t very well-versed in what plants will do well in the Arizona climate. Also, there is a big tree in her backyard making for shady conditions and she isn’t sure what plants will thrive without much direct sunlight. Her favorite gardening catalog offers several backyard seed packages. Which one should Mrs. Jansen choose?

A. The Rainbow Collection is ideal for North-east gardens. It includes a variety of colorful perennials that thrive in cool, moist conditions.
B. The Greenhouse Collection will blossom year after year if planted in brightly lit locations and watered regularly.

C. The Treehouse Collection will provide lush green plants with delicate colorful flowers that thrive in shady and partially shady locations.
D. The Oasis Collection includes a variety of perennials that thrive in dry climates and bright sunlight.

Explanation:
The Treehouse Collection is the only package that can thrive in shady locations. Choice a requires a Northeastern climate. Choices b and d require bright sunlight.

Analyzing Arguments in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve: Read the paragraph carefully and determine the main point the author is trying to make. What conclusion can be drawn from the argument? Each paragraph is followed by five statements.One statement supports the author’s argument better than the others do.

1. One of the warmest winters on record has put consumers in the mood to spend money. Spending is likely to be the strongest in thirteen years. During the month of February, sales of existing single-family homes hit an annual record rate of 4.75 million.
This paragraph best supports the statement that

A. consumer spending will be higher thirteen years from now than it is today.

B. more people buy houses in the month of February than in any other month.

C. during the winter months, the prices of single-family homes are the lowest.

D. there were about 4 million homes for sale during the month of February.

E. warm winter weather is likely to affect the rate of home sales.

Explanation:
This is clearly the best answer because the paragraph directly states that warm weather affects consumers inclination to spend. It furthers states that the sales of single-family homes was at an all-time high. There is no support for choice a or c. Choice b is wrong because even though there were high sales for a particular February, this does not mean that sales are not higher in other months. Choice d presents a misleading figure of 4 million. The paragraph states that the record of 4.75 million was at an annual, not a monthly, rate.
2. Generation Xers are those people born roughly between 1965 and 1981. As employees, Generation Xers tend to be more challenged when they can carry out tasks independently. This makes Generation Xers the most entrepreneurial generation in history.
This paragraph best supports the statement that Generation Xers

A. work harder than people from other generations.

B. have a tendency to be self-directed workers

C. have an interest in making history

D. tend to work in jobs that require risk-taking behavior.

E. like to challenge their bosses work attitudes.

Explanation:
The support for choice b is given in the second sentence of the paragraph. Generation Xers like to work independently, which means they are self-directed. No support is given for either choice a or choice c. Choice d is not related to the paragraph. Although the paragraph mentions that Generation Xers like to be challenged, it does not say they like to challenge their bosses attitudes; therefore, choice e can be ruled out.

Choose the statement that is best supported by the information given in the question passage.

3. Human technology developed from the first stone tools about two and a half million years ago. At the beginning, the rate of development was slow. Hundreds of thousands of years passed without much change. Today, new technologies are reported daily on television and in newspapers.

This paragraph best supports the statement that,
A. stone tools were not really technology.
B. stone tools were in use for two and a half million years
C. there is no way to know when stone tools first came into use.
D. In today’s world, new technologies are constantly being developed
E. none of the latest technologies is as significant as the development of stone tools.

Explanation:
The last sentence states that new technologies are reported daily, and this implies that new technologies are being constantly developed. There is no support for choice a.With regard to choice b, stone tools were first used two and a half million years ago, but they were not neessarily in use all that time. Choice c is clearly wrong since the paragraph states when stone tools first came into use. Although some may agree that choice e is true, the author of the paragraph does not give support for this opinion.

Giving children computers in grade school is a waste of money and teachers time. These children are too young to learn how to use computers effectively and need to spend time on learning the basics, like arithmetic and reading. After all, a baby has to crawl before she can walk.

4. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen the speaker’s argument?

A. studies showing computers are expensive
B. research on the effect of computer games on children
C. examples of high school students who use computers improperly
D. proof that the cost of computers is coming down
E. evidence that using computers makes learning to read difficult

Explanation:
This evidence would back up the speaker’s contention that young students should learn the basics before learning computers. Choices a and d, which are both about cost, would have no effect on the argument. Choices b and c are too vague.

5. Which of the following, if true, would weaken the speaker’s argument?

A. a demonstration that computers can be used to teach reading and arithmetic
B. analysis of the cost-effectiveness of new computers versus repairing old computers
C. examples of adults who do not know how to use computers
D. recent grade reports of students in the computer classes
E. a visit to a classroom where computers are being used

Explanation:
If computers enhance the learning of arithmetic and reading, the speaker’s argument is not as strong.
Directions to Solve: Read the below passage carefully and answer the questions:

Quinn: Our state is considering raising the age at which a person can get a driver’s license to eighteen. This is unfair because the age has been sixteen for many years and sixteen-year-olds today are no less responsible than their parents and grandparents were at sixteen.Many young people today who are fourteen and fifteen years old are preparing to receive their licenses by driving with a learner’s permit and a licensed driver, usually one of their parents. It would not be fair to suddenly say they have to wait two more years.

Dakota: It is true that people have been allowed to receive a drivers license at sixteen for generations. However, in recent years, the increase in traffic means drivers face more dangers than ever and must be ready to respond to a variety of situations. The fact that schools can no longer afford to teach drivers education results in too many young drivers who are not prepared to face the traffic conditions of today.

6. On what does Quinn rely in making her argument?
A. statistics
B. emotion
C. fairness
D. anecdotes

Explanation:
Quinn discusses the fairness of changing the law and raising the age at which one can receive a driver’s license. Emotion (choice b) may be involved, but the argument relies on the fairness issue.

7. On what does Dakota rely in making her argument?

A. statistics
B. actualities
C. fairness
D. anecdotes

Explanation:
Dakota discusses the actualities of increased traffic and the decline in the teaching of drivers education. She doesn’t use statistics (choice a). Her argument is not emotion filled, which rules out choice b. She doesn’t mention fairness (choice c) and doesn’t tell stories about specific situations (choice d).

Statement and Assumption in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve:

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

• (A) If only assumption I is implicit
• (B) If only assumption II is implicit
• (C) If either I or II is implicit
• (D) If neither I nor II is implicit
• (E) If both I and II are implicit.

1. Statement: “You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation.” – A line in an appointment letter.

Assumptions:

I. The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer.

II. Generally an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period.

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

Explanation:
The performance of the individual has to be tested over a span of time as the statement mentions. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions that the individual’s worth shall be reviewed (during probation period) before confirmation. So, II is also implicit.

2. Statement: “In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance to our employees.” – In charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.Assumptions:

I.   Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality.

II.  Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

Explanation:
The assumption I goes against the statement. So, it is not implicit. The allowance will serve as a reward to the employees and shall provoke them to come on time. So, II is implicit.
Directions to Solve: In each question below is given a statement followed by three assumptions numbered I, II and III. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions, decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement and choose your answer accordingly.

3. Statement: In order to reduce the gap between income and expenditure, the company has decided to increase the price of its product from next month.

Assumptions:

I. The rate will remain more or less same after the increase.

II. The expenditure will more or less remain the same in near future.

III. The rival companies will also increase the price of the similar product.

A. Only I and II are implicit
B. Only II and III are implicit
C. Only III is implicit
D. All are implicit
E. None of these

Explanation:
Clearly, the company intends to reduce the gap between income and expenditure by increasing the price of its product i.e. by keeping the expenditure unaltered and increasing the income only. So, II is implicit while I is not. However, the rival companies may or may not follow the same pursuit. So, III is not implicit.

4. Statement: “A rare opportunity to be a professional while you are at home.” – An advertisement for computer literate housewives by a computer company.

Assumptions:

I. Some housewives simultaneously desire to become professional.

II. Computer industry is growing at a fast pace.

III. It is possible to be a professional as well as a housewife.

A. Only I and II are implicit
B. Only II and III are implicit
C. Only I and III are implicit
D. Only II is implicit
E. None of these

Explanation:
Clearly, a company would highlight only that feature in its advertisement which people crave for and which it can make possible. So, both I and III are implicit. Nothing can be deduced about the growth of computer industry. So, II is not implicit.

5. Statement: Pramod decided to get the railway reservation in May, for the journey he wants to make in July, to Madras.

Assumptions:

I. The railways issues reservations two months in advance.

II. There are more than one trains to Madras.

III. There will be vacancy in the desired class.

A. Only I is implicit
B. Only II and III are implicit
C. Only I and III are implicit
D. All are implicit
E. None of these

Explanation:
Clearly, since Pramod decides to get the reservation in May for the journey in July, so I is implicit. The number of trains to Madras or the position of vacancies in different classes cannot be deduced from the given statement. So, neither II nor III is implicit.

Statement and Conclusion in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve:

In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

• (A) If only conclusion I follows
• (B) If only conclusion II follows
• (C) If either I or II follows
• (D) If neither I nor II follows and
• (E) If both I and II follow.

1. Statements: In a one day cricket match, the total runs made by a team were 200. Out of these 160 runs were made by spinners.

Conclusions:

I. 80% of the team consists of spinners.

II. The opening batsmen were spinners.

A. Only conclusion I follows
B. Only conclusion II follows
C. Either I or II follows
D. Neither I nor II follows
E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:
According to the statement, 80% of the total runs were made by spinners. So, I does not follow. Nothing about the opening batsmen is mentioned in the statement. So, II also does not follow.

2. Statements: The old order changed yielding place to new.

Conclusions:

I. Change is the law of nature.

II. Discard old ideas because they are old.

A. Only conclusion I follows
B. Only conclusion II follows
C. Either I or II follows
D. Neither I nor II follows
E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:
Clearly, I directly follows from the given statement. Also, it is mentioned that old ideas are replaced by new ones, as thinking changes with the progressing time. So, II does not follow.

3. Statements: Population increase coupled with depleting resources is going to be the scenario of many developing countries in days to come.

Conclusions:

I. The population of developing countries will not continue to increase in future.

II. It will be very difficult for the governments of developing countries to provide its people decent quality of life.

A. Only conclusion I follows
B. Only conclusion II follows
C. Either I or II follows
D. Neither I nor II follows
E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:
The fact given in I is quite contrary to the given statement. So, I does not follow. II mentions the direct implications of the state discussed in the statement. Thus, II follows.
Directions to Solve:  In each of the following questions, a statement/group of statements is given followed by some conclusions. Without resolving anything yourself choose the conclusion which logically follows from the given statements).

4. Soldiers serve their country.

A. Men generally serve their country.
B. Those who serve their country are soldiers.
C. Some men who are soldiers serve their country.
D. Women do not serve their country because they are not soldiers.

5. A factory worker has five children. No one else in the factory has five children.

A. All workers in the factory have five children each.
B. Everybody in the factory has children.
C. Some of the factory workers have more than five children.
D. Only one worker in the factory has exactly five children.

Theme Detection in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve: Each of the following questions contains a small paragraph followed by a question on it. Read each paragraph carefully and answer the question given below it.

1. The attainment of individual and organisational goals is mutually interdependent and linked by a common denominator – employee work motivation. Organisational members are motivated to satisfy their personal goals, and they contribute their efforts to the attainment of organisational objectives as means of achieving these personal goals.

The passage best supports the statement that motivation –

A. encourages an individual to give priority to personal goals over organisational goals.
B. is crucial for the survival of an individual and organisation.
C. is the product of an individual’s physical and mental energy.
D. is the external force which induces an individual to contribute his efforts.
E. makes organisation and society inseparable.

2. Due to enormous profits involved in smuggling, hundreds of persons have been attracted towards this anti-national activity. Some of them became millionaires overnight. India has a vast coastline both on the Eastern and Western Coast. It has been a heaven for smugglers who have been carrying on their activities with great impunity. There is no doubt, that from time to time certain seizures were made by the enforcement authorities, during raids and ambush but even allowing these losses the smugglers made huge profits.

The passage best supports the statement that,
A. smuggling hampers the economic development of a nation.
B. smuggling ought to be curbed.
C. authorities are taking strict measures to curb smuggling.
D. smuggling is fast increasing in our country owing to the quick profit it entails.

3. Though the waste of time or the expenditure on fashions is very large, yet fashions have come to stay. They will not go, come what may. However, what is now required is that strong efforts should be made to displace the excessive craze for fashion from the minds of these youngsters.

The passage best supports the statement that:

A. fashion is the need of the day.
B. the excessive craze for fashion is detrimental to one’s personality.
C. the hoard for fashion should be done away with so as not to let down the constructive development.
D. work and other activities should be valued more than the outward appearance.

4. One of the important humanitarian by-products of technology is the greater dignity and value that it imparts to human labour. In a highly industrialized society, there is no essential difference between Brahmin and Dalit, Muslim and Hindu; they are equally useful and hence equally valuable for in the industrial society individual productivity fixes the size of the pay cheque and this fixes social status.

The passage best supports the statement that:

A. technology decides individual’s social status.
B. castes and religions are man-made.
C. human labour has dignity and value.
D. all individuals, irrespective of caste and creed, are born equal.
E. industrial society is a great leveller of men.

5. The future of women in India is quite bright and let us hope that they will justify their abilities by rising to the occasion. Napoleon was right when he declared that by educating the women we can educate the whole nation. Because a country can never rise without the contribution of 50% of their population.

The passage best supports the statement that:
A. India is striving hard for the emancipation of women.
B. all women should be well educated.
C. a nation can progress only when women are given equal rights and opportunities as men.
D. women ought to be imparted full freedom to prove their worth and contribute to the progress of the nation.

Cause and Effect in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve:  In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer as
• (A) If statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect;
• (B) If statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect;
• (C) If both the statements I and II are independent causes;
• (D) If both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes; and
• (E) If both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

1. Statements:

I. The prices of petrol and diesel in the domestic market have remained unchanged for the past few months.

II. The crude oil prices in the international market have gone up substantially in the last few months.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Explanation:
The prices of petrol and diesel being stagnant in the domestic market and the increase in the same in the international market must be backed by independent causes.

2. Statements:

I. The government has recently fixed the fees for professional courses offered by the unaided institutions which are much lower than the fees charged last year.

II. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged by the unaided institutions.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Explanation:
The parents’ protest against high fees being charged by the institutions led the government to interfere and fix the fees at a more affordable level.

3. Statements:

I. The Reserve Bank of India has recently put restrictions on few small banks in the country.

II. The small banks in the private and co-operative sector in India are not in a position to withstand the competitions of the bigger in the public sector.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Explanation:
The inability of the small banks to compete with the bigger ones shall not ensure security and good service to the customers, which is an essential concomitant that has to be looked into by the Reserve Bank. I seems to be a remedial step for the same.

4. Statements:

I. All the schools in the area had to be kept closed for most part of the week.

II. Many parents have withdrawn their children from the local schools.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Explanation:
Closing the schools for a week and the parents withdrawing their wards from the local schools are independent issues, which must have been triggered by different individual causes.

5. Statements:

I. India has surpassed the value of tea exports this year over all the earlier years due to an increase in demand for quality tea in the European market.

II. There is an increase in demand of coffee in the domestic market during the last two years.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Explanation:
The two statements discuss two separate statistical and generalised results.

Statement and Argument in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve:  Each question given below consists of a statement, followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.

• (A) If only argument I is strong
• (B) If only argument II is strong
• (C) If either I or II is strong
• (D) If neither I nor II is strong and
• (E) If both I and II are strong.

1. Statement: Should India encourage exports, when most things are insufficient for internal use itself?

Arguments:

I. Yes. We have to earn foreign exchange to pay for our imports.

II. No. Even selective encouragement would lead to shortages.

A. Only argument I is strong
B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong
D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Explanation: Clearly, India can export only the surplus and that which can be saved after fulfilling its own needs, to pay for its imports. Encouragement to export cannot lead to shortages as it shall provide the resources for imports. So, only argument I holds.

2. Statement: Should all the drugs patented and manufactured in Western countries be first tried out on sample basis before giving licence for sale to general public in India?

Arguments:

I. Yes. Many such drugs require different doses and duration for Indian population and hence it is necessary.

II. No. This is just not feasible and hence cannot be implemented.

A. Only argument I is strong
B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong
D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Explanation:

Clearly, health of the citizens is an issue of major concern for the Government. So, a product like drugs, must be first studied and tested in the Indian context before giving licence for its sale. So, only argument I holds strong.

3. Statement: Should India make efforts to harness solar energy to fulfil its energy requirements?

Arguments:

I. Yes, Most of the energy sources used at present is exhaustible.

II. No. Harnessing solar energy requires a lot of capital, which India lacks in.

A. Only argument I is strong
B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong
D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Explanation:
Clearly, harnessing solar energy will be helpful as it is an inexhaustible resource unlike other resources. So, argument I holds. But argument II is vague as solar energy is the cheapest form of energy.

4. Statement: Should there be students union in college/ university?

Arguments:

I. No. This will create a political atmosphere in the campus.

II. Yes, it is very necessary Students are future political leaders.

A. Only argument I is strong
B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong
D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Explanation:
The students union formation shall be a step towards giving to students the basic education in the field of politics. However, it shall create the same political atmosphere in the campus. Thus, both the arguments hold strong.

5. Statement: Should India give away Kashmir to Pakistan?

Arguments:

I. No. Kashmir is a beautiful state. It earns a lot of foreign exchange for India.

II. Yes. This would help settle conflicts.

A. Only argument I is strong
B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong
D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Explanation:
Clearly, India cannot part with a state that is a major foreign exchange earner to it. So, argument I holds strong. Further, giving away a piece of land unconditionally and unreasonably is no solution to settle disputes. So, argument II is vague.

Logical Deduction in Logical Reasoning

Directions to Solve:  In each of the following questions, three statements are given followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and TV. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

1. Statements: All benches are desks. Some desks are roads. All roads are pillars.

Conclusions:

I. Some pillars are benches.

II. Some pillars are desks.

IV. No pillar is bench.

A. None follows

B. Only either I or IV, and III follow
C. Only either I or IV follows
D. Only either I or IV, and II follow
E. All follow

Explanation:

All benches are desks. Some desks are roads.

Since the middle term ‘desks’ is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘Some desks are pillars’. II is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.

All benches are desks. Some desks are pillars.

Since the middle term ‘desks’ is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, I and IV involve the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. So, either I or IV follows.

2. Statements: Some dogs are rats. All rats are trees. Some trees are not dogs.

Conclusions:

I. Some trees are dogs.

II. All dogs are trees.

III. All rats are dogs.

IV. No tree is dog.

A. None follows

B. Only I follows

C. Only I and II follow

D. Only II and III follow

E. All follow

Explanation:

Some dogs are rats. All rats are trees.

Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘Some dogs are trees’. I is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.

All rats are trees. Some trees are not dogs.

Since the middle term ‘trees’ is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

3. Statements: Some bricks are trees. All trees are pens. All pens are boats.

Conclusions:

I. Some boats are bricks.

II. Some pens are bricks.

III. Some trees are bricks.

IV. Some bricks are boats.

A. Only I and II follow

B. Only III and IV follow

C. None follows

D. All follow

E. None of these

Explanation:

III is the converse of the first premise and so it holds.

Some bricks are trees. All trees are pens.

Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘Some bricks are pens’. II is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.

All trees are pens. All pens are boats.

Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘All trees are boats’.

Some bricks are trees. All trees are boats.

Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘Some bricks are boats’. Thus, IV follows. I is the converse of this conclusion and so it also holds.

4. Statements: All cups are glasses. Some glasses are bowls. No bowl is a plate.

Conclusions:

I. No cup is a plate.

II. No glass is a plate.

III. Some plates are bowls.

IV. Some cups are not glasses.

A. None follows

B. Only either I or III follows
C. Only II and III follow
D. Only III and IV follow
E. None of these

Explanation:

All cups are glasses. Some glasses are bowls.

Since the middle term ‘glasses’ is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

Some glasses are bowls. No bowl is a plate.

Since one premise is particular and the other negative, the conclusion must be particular negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘Some glasses are not plates’.

5. Statements: Some trains are roads. No road is jungle. All flowers are jungles.

Conclusions:

I. Some trains are flowers.

II. Some trains are jungles.

III. Some flowers are trains.

A. None follows

B. Only II follows

C. Only III follows

D. Only IV follows

E. All follow

Explanation:

Since one premise is particular and the other negative, the conclusion must be particular negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘Some trains are not jungles’.

No road is jungle. All flowers are jungles.

Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that ‘No flower is road’. IV is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.