“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers…

An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers……….
An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

The Knowledge Library



The Mughals didn’t believe in the right of the eldest son to the throne. This caused conflicts between the successors and caused a loss of manpower.


1.      The European trading companies came to India in this period. The wealth and prosperity of the aristocrats were high and that of the poor was miserable.

2.      The Mughal nobility came from Turks and Afghans. They had their own expenses and had a large number of servants, horses, and elephants. The nobles made expensive presents to the emperor. The foreign nobles had made India their permanent residence and had assimilated into it.

3.      The clothes of cotton and silk were worn by the upper classes. The poor had to live on minimum clothes. The staple food was rice, millets, and pulses. The presence of cattle made milk and milk products common.

4.      Agriculture was the common occupation. Though no new agriculture technique was developed India could export surplus rice to neighboring countries.

5.      Trading communities belonged to many castes. They carried internal and external trade by land and sea routes. The balance of trade was in India’s favor and so gold and silver were imported. The English and Dutch traders too entered the Indian market at this time.


Cultural development:

The art, architecture, music, dance, and paintings were influenced by Turko – Iranian culture brought into India by the Mughals.

Art and architecture:

  1. Mughals were fond of gardens with running water. The large-scale constructions began with Akbar’s reign. His buildings were built in red sandstone.

Pietra Dura’s style of decoration consisted of white marble with floral designs of precious stones.

3. Char Bagh – Rectangular garden enclosed in walls and divided into four parts by artificial channels.

4. The construction style of the Mughals was a central dome surrounding the building with four minarets. The influence of the Mughal architecture continued till the 19th century and its impact is seen in the provincial kingdoms.

Paintings and music:

1.      Mughal painting was initiated by Humayun and reached a climax during Jahangir’s reign.

2.      The style of painting was miniaturized paintings. The scenes of hunting, battles, and royal court could be seen. Paintings and calligraphy can be seen in the paintings. Later on, European influence can also be seen.

3.      Mughals were patrons of music. Akbar had Tansen who composed ragas.

Language and Literature:

1.      The Mughals were patrons of literature. The language that was most widespread in the Empire was Persian.

2.      Many historical works were written in this period. The bigotry towards religion wasn’t seen in literature as many Mughals converted epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, Upanishads, and Gita into Persian.

3.      The regional languages like Oriya, Rajasthani, Bengali, and Gujarati also developed in this period.

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