Fabrics like cotton, silk are made of yarns and yarns are made of fibers.
Types of Fibers:
Natural Fibers: Cotton, jute [plant], silk [cocoon of silkworm], wool [sheep, goats, rabbits, yak, camels hair] are made of fibers of plants and animals.
Cotton is a polymer of cellulose, which is made up of large number of glucose units.
Angora wool is obtained from angora goats of J&K. Wool of Kashmiri goat is used to make pashmina shawls. Llama and alpaca of South America also yield wool.
Sericulture – Rearing of silkworms to obtain silk.
Properties of Natural fibers:
- Cotton: Obtained from fruits [bolls] of the plant. Grown in black soil and warm places.
- Obtained from stem.
- Harvested during flowering stage.
- Grown during rainy season.
- Stem are immersed in water and they rot. Then fibers are separated.
- Flax: A natural fiber from plants.
Artificial Fibers: Synthetic fibers burn easily and stick to the body of person. Synthetic fibers are all made from petrochemicals.
Rayon is artificial silk it’s made by chemical treatment of wood pulp.
Nylon is a fully synthetic fiber made up of coal, water and air. A string of nylon is stronger than string of steel so it’s used in making parachutes and ropes.
Polyester is used for wrinkle free clothes.
Terelyne is polyester. PET is polyester used for making bottles, utensils, wires etc
Acrylic is artificial wool.
Plastics are Polymers. Some bend on heating and are called thermoplastics [PVC, Polythene]. Some molded ones don’t change their shape called thermosetting plastics. [Bakelite, melamine]
Teflon is used in non-stick cookware. Melamine is used on coats of firemen so it makes them flame resistant.
Rubber – is manufactured from rubber latex which is a colloidal dispersion of rubber in water. It’s a linear polymer of isoprene called cis 1, 4 isoprenes. Since natural rubber is brittle at low temperatures and soft at high temperatures it is treated with Sulfur in a process called Vulcanization.
|Lohi – Raj, Punjab|
|Rampur bushair – UP, HP|
|Nali- Raj, Punjab, Haryana|
|Bakharwal – J&K|
|Marwadi, pathanwadi – Gujarat|
Table 1: Sheep breeds of India
Note: Anthrax is a blood disease common among wool sorters.