“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers…

An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers……….
An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

The Knowledge Library

ALL About Buddha Purnima

Buddha Purnima (Vesak) 2022 | History and significance

Buddha Purnima, also known as Vesak, is the most important festival for Buddhists all over the world. This auspicious day commemorates the birth, enlightenment, and death of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, and is widely observed by Buddhist sects. The celebration takes place on the first full moon day (Purnima) of the Hindu month of Vaisakha, corresponding to April-May in the Gregorian calendar.

About Gautama Buddha

Gautam Buddha is born as Siddhartha Gautama to King Suddhodana. He was brought up in great luxury. Since it was predicted at his birth that the prince would go on to become a great monarch, he was kept isolated from the outside world so that he wouldn’t be influenced by towards a religious life. However, at the age of 29, the prince decided to see more of the world and began excursions off the palace grounds in his chariot. On his trips, he saw an old man, a sick man, and a corpse. Since, Siddhartha Gautama had been protected from the miseries of aging, sickness, and death his charioteer had to explain what they were. Towards the end of the trip, he saw a monk and was impressed with the man’s peaceful demeanor. Hence, he decided to go into the world to discover how that man could be so serene despite such sufferings all around him.

He left the palace and became a wandering ascetic. He studied medication under Alara Kalama and Udraka Ramaputra and soon mastered their systems. He reached high states of mystical realization but as he was unsatisfied, he went out in search of nirvana, the highest level of enlightenment. He seated himself under a banyan tree and sought to attain enlightenment. Once, he attained enlightenment, he went about preaching about it and founded Buddhism.

Important Milestones in Early Buddhism 

  • 563 B.C.: Prince Siddharta Gautama is born in Lumbini, Nepal. He later becomes known as Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. 
  • 528 B.C.: Buddha gains enlightenment while meditating under a Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India. This event is known as the “Awakening.” 
  • 483 B.C.: Buddha attains nirvana, the release from the cycle of rebirth, and passes away in a state of deep meditation. 
  • 269-231 B.C.: During the reign of King Ashoka, a patron of Buddhism, Buddhist evangelism begins and the religion spreads throughout Asia. 

Celebration of Buddha Purnima

On the day of the festival, Buddha idols are worshipped as well as prayer meets are held. Devotees visit Buddhist shrines, recite Buddhist scriptures and take part in religious discussions and group meditations.

On the occasion of the festival, the Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya is beautified with hued decorations and special prayers are held under the Bodhi tree, where Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment. The national museum in Delhi lets people see the holy remains of Lord Buddha on the occasion. A sweet dish called ‘Kheer’ which is made using rice and milk is prepared on the day of the festival.

 

How is Buddha Purnima Celebrated?  

Many Buddhist temples and centres hold special ceremonies on Buddha Purnima. People attend a ceremony in person or virtually participate in traditional rituals and prayers.  

Buddha Purnima is celebrated with decorations of flowers and lights. People decorate their homes or community centres with flowers and lights to create a peaceful and calming environment. The Chinese celebrate Buddha Purnima by visiting pagodas and lighting up incense, candles, and lanterns. They also participate in various religious activities, such as listening to Buddhist scriptures and performing traditional dances. In Japan, the festival is known as Hanamatsuri or Flower Festival. It is celebrated by decorating the statues of Buddha with fresh flowers and bathing them with a special flower juice. The streets are decorated with colourful lanterns, and people gather to enjoy traditional Japanese foods. 

Buddha Purnima is a time to reflect on Buddha’s teachings of compassion and kindness towards all living beings. People take this opportunity to practice kindness towards themselves and others. They try to perform small acts of kindness such as smiling at a stranger, volunteering, or simply being present for someone who needs them. In South Korea, the festival is celebrated by distributing free food to the needy and lighting up lotus lanterns. Many people participate in parades, dance performances, and other cultural events. 

Some Buddhists choose to observe a fast on Buddha Purnima as a form of purification and self-discipline. If you feel inclined to observe a fast, consult with a medical professional to ensure it is safe for you to do so. Buddha Purnima is celebrated in India with great devotion and fervour. Buddhists from all over the country visit key places in Buddha’s life, such as Bodh Gaya, Lumbini, and Sarnath. During this festival, they avoid eating meat and offer vegetarian food to others. 

People reflect and meditate on Buddha’s teachings and how they can be applied in their daily life. People can use this time to meditate, journal, or simply be mindful of their thoughts and actions throughout the day. In Thailand, the festival is called Vesak, and devotees gather in temples to chant prayers and offer alms to the monks. They also participate in various religious activities, such as meditation and listening to sermons by Buddhist monks. Vesak is considered a public holiday in Thailand. 

Significance of Buddha Purnima 

Buddha Purnima is an important festival as it commemorates the life of Buddha, celebrates his teachings, promotes cultural unity, and highlights the relevance of his teachings in modern times. Buddha Purnima is celebrated by Buddhists all over the world, bringing them together to celebrate a common cause. It promotes cultural unity and highlights the universality of Buddha’s teachings. Buddha Purnima is celebrated to commemorate the life of Buddha, who is considered a historical figure and whose teachings have had a significant impact on the world. It is an opportunity for Buddhists to reflect on Buddha’s teachings and their relevance in modern times. Buddha Purnima is also known as the ‘thrice-blessed festival’ as it celebrates three main events of Buddha’s life – his birth, enlightenment, and nirvana. These events are significant milestones in Buddha’s journey and represent the essence of his teachings. Buddha’s teachings on wisdom, concentration, and discipline are still relevant in modern times, and the festival provides an opportunity to reflect on these teachings and how they can be applied in our daily lives. 

History of Buddha Purnima

Although Buddha’s followers did not officially celebrate his birthday, festivals honouring him were held for centuries. The celebration of Buddha Purnima was not formalized until modern times. In May 1950, at the first conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Colombo, Sri Lanka, Buddha Purnima was officially recognized as a celebration during Vesak. The full moon day in May was chosen because Buddha attained nirvana on a full moon day.  

For many centuries, Vesak is a traditional celebration in the Mahayana Buddhist. In 563 BCE, Gautam Buddha was born in Lumbini as per the Theravada Tripitaka scriptures. Today, Lumbini is a part of Nepal. In 1950, Vesak was earlier pondered as Buddha Purnima. It was decided in the first conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists. In 1999, the celebrations of Vesak were recognised as Buddha Purnima. Vesak is an important day for Buddhists. The day celebrates the birth, death and enlightenment of Buddha. In the Buddhist community, it is one of the widely celebrated festivals.

Buddhism gained popularity due to its teachings of non-violence, respect for life, and equality for women. These concepts resonated with both traditional and modern ideas of progress, and many countries in Asia became primarily Buddhist nations. Buddhism has adapted to various cultures, resulting in different sub-sects. It is a philosophy that does not celebrate deities, making it inclusive and popular among different groups of people worldwide. 

 

Symbol

During Vesak, the dharma wheel symbol is commonly seen. The Dharma wheel is also called dharmachakra. It has eight ribs. The great teachings of Gautam Buddha are represented through this wheel. The precious eightfold path of the Buddhist community is symbolised through eight struts.

Important Teachings of Buddha  

The Four Noble Truths are the world is full of suffering, desire causes suffering, getting rid of desire, suffering will be removed, and the Eightfold path will help to win over desire. 

The Eightfold Path consists of the right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. It is a path of self-development and self-realization that helps to overcome suffering and attain enlightenment. The Eightfold Path is based on the principle that all human beings are capable of transforming themselves and achieving a state of ultimate peace and happiness. 

Buddha also believed that the condition of humans in their life depends upon their own deeds. Hence, he advocates the law of Karma, which is the principle that one’s actions in this life determine their future lives. The law of Karma encourages individuals to act in a responsible and ethical manner, as all their actions have consequences. 

Buddha laid great emphasis on the code of practical ethics and the principle of social equality. He taught that everyone is equal and that no one should be discriminated against based on their caste, gender, or any other factor. His teachings promoted kindness, compassion, and empathy towards all living beings. In summary, Buddha’s teachings revolve around self-development, ethical conduct, social equality, and compassion towards all living beings. 

Important Facts

Buddha Purnima holds great significance in the life of Buddhists. It is believed that Gautama Buddha was born on this day in Lumbini, Nepal, in 563 BCE.

He was born into a royal family but gave up his luxurious life to seek enlightenment. At the age of 35, he attained enlightenment under a Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India.

This event is known as Buddha’s enlightenment or Bodhi Day. Buddha then spent the rest of his life spreading his teachings, which came to be known as Buddhism. He passed away at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India.

On Buddha Purnima, Buddhists reflect on Buddha’s teachings, which emphasize the importance of living a life of compassion, wisdom, and mindfulness.

They also practice meditation, which is an essential aspect of Buddhism.

The festival is an opportunity for people to renew their commitment to these teachings and strive towards spiritual growth.

In addition to its spiritual significance, Buddha Purnima is also an occasion for cultural celebration. People of different countries and regions have their unique ways of celebrating the festival.

In India, for example, people celebrate by lighting lamps, decorating their homes and temples with flowers, and offering prayers.

In Japan, the festival is known as Hanamatsuri or the Flower Festival, and people decorate Buddha statues with flowers.

 

Profound Quotes by Buddha

1. “We are what we think. All that we are arises from our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.”
2. “Nothing is forever except change.”
3. “Do not look for a sanctuary in anyone except yourself.”
4. “The root of suffering is attachment.”
5. “All that we are is the result of what we have thought.”
6. “Radiate boundless love towards the entire world.”
7. “True love is born from understanding.”
8. “Being deeply learned and skilled, being well trained and using well-spoken words: this is good luck.”
9. “A disciplined mind brings happiness.”
10. “Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”
11. “Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.”
12. “Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.”
13. “Your work is to discover your work and then with all your heart to give yourself to it.”
14. “Love is a gift of one’s inner most soul to another so both can be whole.”
15. “Just as a mother would protect her only child with her life, even so let one cultivate a boundless love towards all beings.”
16. “Speak only endearing speech, speech that is welcomed. Speech, when it brings no evil to others, is a pleasant thing.
17. “Should you find a wise critic to point out your faults, follow him as you would a guide to hidden treasure.”
18. “Hatred does not cease by hatred, but only by love; this is the eternal rule.”
19. “In separateness lies the world’s greatest misery; in compassion lies the world’s true strength.”
20. “Anger will never disappear so long as thoughts of resentment are cherished in the mind. Anger will disappear just as soon as thoughts of resentment are forgotten.”
21. “Buddham Saranam Gacchami, Dhamma Saranam Gacchami, Sangham Saranam Gacchami”
22. “Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment”.
23. “Thousands of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared”.
24. “Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, and faithfulness the greatest relationship.”
25. “We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.”
30. “However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?”
― Buddha Siddhartha Guatama Shakyamuni
31. “There is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt separates people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and breaks up pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it is a sword that kills.”
― Buddha Siddhartha Guatama Shakyamuni
32. “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.”
― Gautama Buddha
33. “Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”
― Siddhārtha Gautama
34. “Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.”
― Buddha
35. “Doubt everything. Find your own light.”
― Gautama Buddha, Sayings of Buddha

Gautam Buddha and Buddhism Multiple Choice Questions 

  1. Gautama Buddha was born on
    A. 563 BC

    B. 663 BC
    C. 463 BC
    D. 763 BC
    Answer: A. 563 BC
  2. What is the meaning of “Buddha“?
    A. Teacher

    B. Priest
    C. Enlightened
    D. Monks
    Answer: C. Enlightened
  3. What was the original name of Gautama Buddha?
    A. Mahavira

    B. Siddhartha
    C. Suddhodhona
    D. Rahul
    Answer: B. Siddhartha
  4. Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon at
    A. Kosala

    B. Kushinagar
    C. Sarnath
    D. Bodh Gaya
    Answer: C. Sarnath
  5. Where the last sermon was delivered by Gautama Buddha?
    A. Kushinagar

    B. Vaishali
    C. Bodh Gaya
    D. Sarnath
    Answer: B. Vaishali
  6. Who delivered “Dharmachakra Pravartana“?
    A. Gautama Buddha

    B. Mahavira
    C. Ashoka
    D. Samudragupta
    Answer: A. Gautama Buddha
  7. Gautama Buddha Passed away in
    A. 283 BC

    B. 383 BC
    C. 483 BC
    D. 583 BC
    Answer: C. 483 BC
  8. Where the Gautama Buddha Passed away?
    A. Kushinagar

    B. Vaishali
    C. Sarnath
    D. Bodh Gaya
    Answer: A. Kushinagar
  9. ‘Aryasatya’enunciated by Buddha has
    A. 3 Truth

    B. 4 Truth
    C. 5 Truth
    D. 6 Truth
    Answer: B. 4 Truth
  10. Which language Buddhist Scriptures are written?
    A. Sanskrit

    B. Pali
    C. English
    D. Nepali
    Answer: B. Pali
  11. What is the name of Buddhist scripture?
    A. Tripitaka

    B. Vinaya Pitaka
    C. Astangika Marga
    D. Sutta Pitaka
    Answer: A. Tripitaka
  12. Siddhartha had a son before he became Gautama Buddha. What was the name of his son?
    A. Rahul

    B. Subodh
    C. Kanishka
    D. Vijay
    Answer: A. Rahul
  13. Where the first council of monks after the death of Buddha arranged?
    A. Sarnath

    B. Rajgriha
    C. Vaishali
    D. Kundalvan
    Answer: B. Rajgriha
  14. Where the second council of monks of Buddhist arranged?
    A. Sarnath

    B. Rajgriha
    D. Vaishali
    D. Kundalval
    Answer: D. Vaishali
  15. The third council of monks after death of Buddha arranged ?
    A. Sarnath

    B. Rajgriha
    D. Vaishali
    D. Kundalval
    Answer: D. Kundalval
  16. What is the mother name of Gautama Buddha?
    A. Mahamaya

    B. Yosadhara
    C. Koshaka
    D. Nirmaya
    Answer: A. Mahamaya
  17. Followers of Buddha who lived a family life were called
    A. Upasaka
    B. Anusavan
    C. Upsampada
    D. Gahapati
    Answer: A. Upasaka
  18. The clear division of Buddhism in Hinayana and Mahayana took place during the regime of –
    A. Mauryas
    B. Shunga
    C. Kushans
    D. Guptas
    Answer: C. Kushans
  19. Gautam Buddha died at Kushinagar. The place is in the province of
    A. Madhya Pradesh
    B. Bihar
    C. Uttar Pradesh
    D. Andhra Pradesh
    Answer: C. Uttar Pradesh
  20. The day on which Buddha was born, Enlightened and passed away was
    A. Vaishakh Purnima
    B. Ashadh Purnima
    C. Kartik Purnima
    D. None
    Answer: A. Vaishakh Purnima
  21. Which of the following is not one of the names of Buddha’s wife?
    A. Subhadraka
    B. Bhadrakachchha
    C. Chelana
    D. Bimba
    Answer: C. Chelana
  22. The Peepal tree under which Gautam received “Buddhatva’ was cut by the order of which king?
    A. Mihirkula
    B. Toraman
    C. Pushyamitra Sunga
    D. Shashanka
    Answer: D. Shashanka
  23. One taking entry in Bauddha Samgha was called
    A. Upasampada
    B. Bhikkshu
    C. Shraman
    D. Anusavan
    Answer: A. Upasampada
  24. ‘Mahabhiniskramana’ refers to which event?
    A. Gautam Buddha leaving ignorance
    B. Gautam Buddha leaving penance (Tap)
    C. Gautam Buddha leaving his home
    D. Gautam Buddha left this world
    Answer: C. Gautam Buddha leaving his home
  25. Who was the first disciple of Gautam Buddha?
    A. Kaundinya
    B. Rahul
    C. Anand
    D. Devabrat
    Answer: A. Kaundinya
  26. Where was the first Bauddha Sangeeti held?
    A. Chullavagga
    B. Saptaparni Cave
    C. Kundalvana
    D. Pataliputra
    Answer: B. Saptaparni Cave
  27. No Bauddha Sangeeti was held at which place?
    A. Rajgriha
    B. Vaishali
    C. Sarnath
    D. Pataliputra
    Answer: C. Sarnath
  28. ‘Patimonkha’ deals with
    A. Education
    B. Propaganda
    C. Discipline
    D. None of these
    Answer: C. Discipline
  29. ‘Patimankha’ is a part of
    A. Vinay Pitaka 
    B. Sutta Pitaka
    C. Abhidhamma Pitaka
    D. Jatakas
    Answer: A. Vinay Pitaka
  30. ‘Mahavagga’ and ‘Chullvagga’ are related to
    A. Sutta Vibhag
    B. Khandak
    C. Parivar
    D. Yamak
    Answer: B. Khandak
  31. Abhidhamma Pitaka does not include
    A. Puggal Panchayati
    B. Kathavatthu
    C. Sutta vibhang
    D. Dhatu Katha
    Answer: C. Sutta vibhang
  32. Jatak belongs to which Nikay?
    A. Deegh
    B. Majjhim
    C. Samyukta
    D. Khuddak
    Answer: D. Khuddak
  33. Which of the following sects belong to Hinayana?
    A. Sahajyan
    B. Mantrayan
    C. Yogacharya
    D. Sautrantik
    Answer: D. Sautrantik
  34. Which of the following sects belonged to Mahayana?
    A. Madhyamik
    B. Vaibhashik
    C. Vajrayana
    D. Sautrantik
    Answer: A. Madhyamik
  35. ‘Veluvan’ was gifted to Gautam Buddha by
    A. Ajatsatru
    B. Prasenjit
    C. Bimbasar
    D. Udayan
    Answer: C. Bimbasar
  36. Who taught yoga to Gautam Buddha?
    A. Suddodhana
    B. Anand
    C. Devabrat
    D. Alar-kalam
    Answer: D. Alar-kalam
  37. Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon in
    A. Gaya
    B. Sarnath
    C. Rajgriha
    D. Pataliputra
    Answer: B. Sarnath
  38. The first sermon of Gautam Buddha is called
    A. Mahabhiniskrama
    B. Dharma Chakra Pravartan
    C. Dhamma Ghosh
    D. Mahaparinirvana
    Answer: B. Dharma Chakra Pravartan
  39. Which Buddhist sect believed in Tantra and Hatha yoga?
    A. Hinayana
    B. Mahayana
    C. Vajrayana
    D. None of these
    Answer: C. Vajrayana
  40. Which branch of Buddhism believed in Pudgal and Anatma?
    A. Saidhantik
    B. Shunyavadi
    C. Sarvastik
    D. Vaibhashik
    Answer: C. Sarvastik
  41. Which work is a commentary on Deegh Nikaya?
    A. Lalit vistar
    B. Deepvamsh
    C. Sumangal Vilasini
    D. Neeti Prakaran
    Answer: A. Lalit vistar
  42. How many big cities are mentioned in the literature of Buddhist age?
    A. Ten
    B. Eight
    C. Six
    D. Tour
    Answer: B. Eight
  43. Which Bauddha sect emerged in the 7th century A.D.?
    A. Mahashanghik
    B. Theravada
    C. Vajrayana
    D. Mahayan
    Answer: C. Vajrayana
  44. Which of the following statement is not correct from the Buddhist point of view?
    A. The world is full of sorrow
    B. Happiness is God’s gift
    C. One can overcome sorrow
    D. There is a way to overcome sorrow
    Answer: B. Happiness is God’s gift
  45. According to Buddhism sorrow (dukkha) is caused by
    A. Lack of money
    B. Lack of power
    C. Neglect by near and dear one
    D. Desires
    Answer: D. Desires
  46. According to Gautam Buddha, the path to prevent sorrow (dukkha) is
    A. To earn more money
    B. To live a luxurious life
    C. To do penances
    D. To follow Madhyam Pratipada
    Answer: D. To follow Madhyam Pratipada
  47. The path of Madhyam Pratipada is
    A. Sevenfold
    B. Eightfold
    C. Ninefold
    D. Ten-fold
    Answer: B. Eightfold
  48. Which of the following is part of the Eightfold Path?
    A. Satya
    B. Ahimsa
    C. Brahmacharya
    D. None of these
    Answer: D. None of these
  49. Samadhi Skandh of Ashtangik Marg did not include
    A. Right Vision
    B. Right effort
    C. Right Memory
    D. Right meditation
    Answer: A. Right Vision
  50. The Pragya Skandha of Eightfold path consists of
    A. Right vision and Right Effort
    B. Right vision and Right Resolution
    C. Right Resolution and Right Meditation
    D. Right vision and Right speech
    Answer: B. Right vision and Right Resolution
  51. Which group belongs to Sheel Skandha of Eightfold Path?
    A. Right vision, Resolution, and speech
    B. Right speech, action, and livelihood
    C. Right action, livelihood, and effort
    D. Right livelihood, effort, and meditation
    Answer: B. Right speech, action, and livelihood
  52. Ten sheels prescribed by Gautam Buddha did not include
    A. Satya
    B. Ahimsa
    C. Self-study
    D. Asteya
    Answer: C. Self-study
  53. Ten sheels laid down by Buddha included
    A. Brahmacharya
    B. Aparigraha
    C. Giving up the comfortable bed
    D. All the three
    Answer: D. All the three
  54. Which was not a part of ten sheels?
    A. Non-drinking
    B. No-meals at odd times
    C. No use of scented goods
    D. No usury
    Answer: D. No usury
  55. Who was the founder of ‘Maha Sanghika’ sect?
    A. Mahakashyap
    B. Upali
    C. Rahulbhadra
    D. None of these
    Answer: A. Mahakashyap
  56. Mahayana Sampraday believed in-
    A. Bodhisattvas
    B. Divinity of Buddha
    C. Idol worship
    D. All three
    Answer: D. All three
  57. ‘Theravada’ was founded by whom?
    A. Mahakashyap
    B. Mahakachchhayan
    C. Upali
    D. Anand
    Answer: B. Mahakachchhayan
  58. Which group of causes of life cycle belong to early life (Poorva Janam)?
    A. Avidya and Samskar
    B. Vigyan Namrupa and Shadayatan
    C. Sparsh, Vedana, Trishna, Upadan
    D. Bhav, Jati, Jara-Maran
    Answer: A. Avidya and Samskar
  59. Which of the following statements is not correct?
    A. Hinayana looked upon Buddha as a human being
    B. Hinayana put before individual the goal of “Arhat to achieve Nirvana
    C. Hinayana worshipped Buddha’s idols
    D. Hinayana did not believe in Bodhisattva
    Answer: C. Hinayana worshipped Buddha’s idols
  60. The form of government in Buddha’s age was
    A. Monarchy
    B. Republic
    C. Anarchy
    D. Monarchy as well as Republic
    Answer: D. Monarchy as well as Republic
  61. Which of the following states was not a republic?
    A. Lichchhavi
    B. Shakya
    C. Koshala
    D. Koliya
    Answer: C. Koshala
  62. Which of the following states was not a monarchy?
    A. Kashi
    B. Magadh
    C. Vajji
    D. Avanti
    Answer: C. Vajji
  63. Who were the Contemporaries of Gautam Buddha?
    A. Prasenjit
    B. Alar-Kalam
    C. Kaundinya
    D. All the three
    Answer: D. All the three
  64. Gautam Buddha gave up his fast by taking food from
    A. Supriya
    B. Sujata
    C. Sumitra
    D. Sangita
    Answer: B. Sujata
  65. Which of the following is not a Hinayani-sect?
    A. Sthavirvade
    B. Sarvastivadin
    C. Yogacharya
    D. Mahasanghik
    Answer: C. Yogacharya
  66. Which of the following is not a Mahayani sect?
    A. Shunyavada
    B. Vigyanvada
    C. Yogacharya
    D. Sautrantrik
    Answer: D. Sautrantrik
  67. Buddha spent greater time at which place?
    A. Rajgriha
    B. Shravasti
    C. Vaishali
    D. Kapilvastu
    Answer: B. Shravasti
  68. Jetavan was donated to Buddha by whom?
    A. Bimbasar
    B. Anath Pindak
    C. Amrapali
    D. Vishakha
    Answer: B. Anath Pindak
  69. Which of the following work does not belong to Mahayan?
    A. Mahavastu
    B. Lalit-vistar
    C. Mahayan Sutra
    D. Abhidhamma Kosha
    Answer: D. Abhidhamma Kosha
  70. What is the correct meaning of “Pratyeka Buddha’?
    A. Everybody can achieve Buddhastva
    B. Everybody can approach Buddha
    C. One who has obtained a “Bodhi’ but is neither a teacher nor a disciple
    D. Every Bodhisattva is a Buddha
    Answer: C. One who has obtained a “Bodhi’ but is neither a teacher nor a disciple
  71. Trikayavad of Mahayan did not include the concept of?
    A. Rupakaya
    B. Nirmankaya
    C. Dharmakaya
    D. Sambhagkaya
    Answer: A. Rupakaya
  72. Which concepts belong to Hinayana?
    A. Rupa Kaya-Dharmakay
    B. Rupakaya-Nirmankaya
    C. Rupakaya-Sambhagkaya
    D. Dharmakaya-Nirvankaya
    Answer: A. Rupa Kaya-Dharmakay
  73. What is ‘Panch-Skandha’ of Buddhism?
    A. Fire, Water, Air, Space, and time
    B. Fire, Water, Air, Desire, and Salvation
    C. Desire, Salvation, Death, Birth, and life
    D. Vigyan, Vedana, Roop, Samgya, and Samskar
    Answer: D. Vigyan, Vedana, Roop, Samgya, and Samskar
  74. Which of the following statements is correct?
    A. Gautam Buddha did not believe in caste system
    B. Gautam considered Kshatriya superior to Brahmans
    C. Gautam was against social discrimination in religion
    D. Bauddha literature refers to Hina-Jatis
    A. A., B. and C.
    B. B., C. and D.
    C. C., D. and A.
    D. A., B., C. and D.
    Answer: A. B., C. and D.
  75. Buddhism did not believe in
    A. Soul
    B. Rebirth
    C. Karma-Phal
    D. Nirvana
    Answer: A. Soul
  76. Which city was not visited by Buddha?
    A. Rajgriha
    B. Mathura
    C. Shravasti
    D. Vaishali
    Answer: B. Mathura
  77. Which of the following statement is not correct?
    A. Buddhism believed in Rebirth
    B. According to Buddhism, rebirth is the migration of the soul from body to body
    C. Rebirth is the consequence of Karma
    D. Man can get rid of the birth-rebirth cycle
    Answer: B. According to Buddhism, rebirth is the migration of the soul from body to body
  78. Which factor did not contribute to the sharp decline of Buddhism?
    A. Schism in religion
    B. Moral degeneration of monks
    C. The hostile attitude of rulers
    D. The revival of Hinduism
    Answer: C. The hostile attitude of rulers
  79. Which of the following statements is not correct?
    A. Hinayana was against reform in religion
    B. Hinayana was a sectarian sect
    C. Hinayana did not believe in the divinity of Gautam Buddha
    D. Hinayana emphasized strict observance of religious rules
    Answer: A. Hinayana was against reform in religion
  80. After which sangeeti use of Sanskrit became common in Buddhist literature?
    A. First
    B. Second
    C. Third
    D. Fourth
    Answer: D. Fourth
  81. According to Gautam Buddha, what is the correct approach to Vedas?
    A. Vedas are divine words
    B. Vedas are only source of knowledge
    C. The word of Vedas are final
    D. No significance be attached to Vedas
    Answer: D. No significance be attached to Vedas
  82. Who was the author of “Vishuddhi magga’?
    A. Ashvaghosha
    B. Buddhaghosa
    C. Vasumitra
    D. Nagarjuna
    Answer: B. Buddhaghosa
  83. Who is the author of ‘Madhyamik Sutra’?
    A. Vasumitra
    B. Vasubandhu
    C. Ashvaghosh
    D. Nagarjuna
    Answer: D. Nagarjuna
  84. Which was the first country to adopt Buddhism?
    A. Ceylone
    B. China
    C. Indonesia
    D. Thailand
    Answer: A. Ceylone
  85. Which place is not famous for Buddhist architecture?
    A. Bharhut
    B. Saranath
    C. Mathura
    D. Sanchi
    Answer: C. Mathura
  86. In which century Buddhism reached China?
    A. First century B.C.
    B. First century A.D.
    C. Second century A.D.
    D. None
    Answer: B. First century A.D.
  87. Who went Nepal to Propagate Buddhism?
    A. Acharya Kamalshila
    B. Acharya Alisha
    C. Acharya Shanta Rakshita
    D. Acharya Vasubandhu
    Answer: D. Acharya Vasubandhu
  88. Who was the founder of ‘Shunyavada’?
    A. Shanker
    B. Nagarjuna
    C. Asvaghosh
    D. Vasumitra
    Answer: B. Nagarjuna
  89. Which sect was considered a bridge between old Buddhism and Hinduism?
    A. Tantrayan
    B. Mahayana
    C. Hinayana
    D. Sahajyan
    Answer: B. Mahayana
  90. How many spikes Bauddh Dharma Chakra had?
    A. 10
    B. 8
    C. 7
    D. 4
    Answer: B. 8
  91. Which sect represents the developed form of Tantrik Buddhism?
    A. Hinayana
    B. Mahayan
    C. Vajrayana
    D. None of these
    Answer: C. Vajrayana
  92. Who persuaded Gautam to admit women in Samgha?
    A. Anand and Yasodhara
    B. Yashodhara and Gautami Prajapati
    C. Anand and Gautami
    D. Gautami and Devbrat
    Answer: C. Anand and Gautami
  93. Women were admitted in Samgha for the first time at?
    A. Veluvan
    B. Jetavan
    C. Kutagrashala
    D. Amravatika
    Answer: D. Amravatika
  94. Who propagated ‘Madhyamik’ Buddhism in China?
    A. Bimbasar
    B. Dignag
    C. Kumarjiva
    D. Vasubandhu
    Answer: C. Kumarjiva
  95. Which of the following is a part of Vinay Pitaka?
    A. Khandak
    B. Bhikkhuvibhang
    C. Bhikkhuni Vibhang
    D. None of three
    Answer: A. Khandak
  96. How many Suttas are there in Anguttar Nikay?
    A. 2500
    B. 2300
    C. 2100
    D. 1900
    Answer: B. 2300
  97. How many Nikaya are in Sutta Pitaka?
    A. 2
    B. 3
    C. 5
    D. 7
    Answer: C. 5
  98. Deegh Nikaya deals with-
    A. Dialogues of Gautam Buddha
    B. Rules and regulations of Buddhism
    C. The life story of Gautam Buddha
    D. Lives of Bodhi Satvas
    Answer: A. Dialogues of Gautam Buddha
  99. Which cannot be called a Buddhist contribution to religion?
    A. Idol worship
    B. Corporate (Samgh) life
    C. Ritualism
    D. Madhyam marg of Salvation
    Answer: C. Ritualism
  100. Which factor contributed to the emergence of Buddhism?
    A. Changes in material life brought by the use of iron
    B. The philosophical upsurge of the age
    C. The reaction against Brahmanic religion based on sacrifices
    D. All the above-mentioned factors
    Answer: D. All the above-mentioned factors

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