Cocoa needs a wet and warm climate which is available in Ghana as it lies in the equatorial belt. A large labor force is needed as mechanization can’t be used cocoa fruit needs to be plucked by hand. Ports are available for export to high-demand markets like Europe and US. Ghana doesn’t have the market nor infrastructure or skilled manpower needed for cocoa processing into finished products. It doesn’t process cocoa before exporting as cocoa loses flavor quickly so importing nation needs to do the processing.
Rubber is obtained from Latex which is taken from the rubber trees. A delicate incision is made without damaging the tree. Then sap is collected in cups. This requires a high number of cheap and skilled labor. Rubber trees can’t tolerate cold weather so a tropical climate is suitable also moisture needs are high. The vulcanization process was invented so natural rubber found many applications. Synthetic rubber was invented by US scientists and it affected the demand for natural rubber.
Malaysia is an equatorial country and so the climate is suitable for rubber plantations. The research and development have led to newer techniques for collecting sap. Government policy encourages the re-planting of rubber trees as newer trees yield 3-4 times more rubber. Also, strict quality control norms for export mean that quality is stable and the product is respected in the market.
Sugarcane has high weight loss as a raw material for sugar. Only 10% by weight of sugarcane can be converted to sugar. The sugar mills that manufacture coarse brown sugar use sugarcane as input and so need to be located closer to the source of raw material. Sugarcane also loses sugar content after cutting so needs to be processed fast. Sugar mills produce Bagasse [energy source, pulp, and paper industry] and molasses [ethanol] along with press mud [waste]. Bagasse is used for energy production.
Sugar refineries use brown coarse sugar and get refined sugar. As weight loss or shelf life isn’t a problem refineries can be located at ports where they use imported sugar or near markets.
The Indian sugar industry is located mostly in Maharashtra and UP. Maharashtra has a strong labor force and a high area under cultivation. Sugarcane cooperatives are present. The crushing season is longer and sugar content is high as the weather is moderate due to the influence of oceans. Capital requirements are met and the Mumbai region serves as a port and a market for sugar.
Cuba: Sugar bowl of the world
The hot climate and Northeast trade winds made the climate suitable for sugarcane. The American capital was heavily invested in bringing more land under cultivation. Fertile, calciferous soil is present in Cuba. The USA and Europe are the world’s largest sugar markets and so demand is high.
Tea and Coffee plantations
Factors affecting Tea plantations:
- Tea plantation is done in areas having high population density. The task of weeding, pruning, manuring, and plucking needs highly skilled labor. Since tea needs to be grown on hilltops mechanization is needed.
- Even while drying, rolling, fermentation, and packaging tea skilled manpower is needed. So tea plantation is done in areas that are having high population density.
- Tea processing is done in plantation areas as high weight loss is seen.
- Tea can’t tolerate stagnant water so grows on hilltops and also can’t tolerate cold.
British Tea industry thrived during the colonization period. Tea was imported from colonies like India, and China and exported to European nations. The post-colonization era was a major problem as colonies were now directly exported to European regions.
Tea industry of Darjeeling
- Darjeeling climate has low temperature and morning fog that gives high-grade leaf. Densely populated neighboring regions and the presence of tea estates mean the skilled labor is abundant.
- Soil is potash rich and has good quality.
- Demand is high in domestic and foreign markets and proximity to Kolkata ports is a major advantage.
- Since tea is grown on hills stagnant water isn’t a problem.
The Darjeeling tea industry is due to British efforts as they developed an alternate industry as indigo plantations weren’t giving good results.
Coffee is grown on hill slopes as it can’t tolerate water logging. It needs to be protected from excess sunlight at least in the initial stages. The coffee berry has to be handpicked and since plantations are on hill slopes the mechanization is also not possible. Coffee loses flavor after roasting and so only preliminary processing is done in the home country and remaining in the importing country.
Brazil Coffee Industry
- Volcanic soil remains productive for years without any added fertilizers.
- Labor is abundant in Brazil as it is densely populated.
- Special rail and road transport for connecting estates with ports and markets.
- Coffee has universal demand amongst nations.
- Climate is suitable due to the sea breeze and also tall leguminous plants are grown that provide shade to coffee crops.