“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers…

An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

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Knot🟢Why are there 12 Inches in a Foot?🟢Nanotechnology🟢नवरात्रि - Navratri🟢What is Stem Cell Research?🟢The Most Dangerous Tree🟢Extinct Animals of the World🟢जातक कथा: लक्खण मृग की कहानी | The Story of The Two Deer🟢जातक कथा: महाकपि का बलिदान | The Story of Great Monkey🟢जातक कथा: छद्दन्त हाथी की कहानी | Chaddanta Elephant🟢जातक कथा: दो हंसों की कहानी | The Story of Two Swans🟢जातक कथा: रुरु मृग | The Story of Ruru Deer🟢जातक कथा: चांद पर खरगोश | The Hare on The Moon🟢जातक कथा: महिलामुख हाथी | The Story Of Mahilaimukha Elephant🟢जातक कथा: बिना अकल के नक़ल की कहानी | Akal Ke Bina Nakal🟢जातक कथा: गौतम बुद्ध और अंगुलिमाल की कथा | Gautam Budha & Angulimal Ki Kahani🟢अलिफ लैला - शहरयार और शहरजाद की शादी की कहानी🟢अलिफ लैला - अमीना की कहानी🟢अलिफ लैला - गरीब मजदूर की कहानी🟢अलिफ लैला - भद्र पुरुष और उसके तोते की कहानी

“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers…

 

An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.
Knot🟢Why are there 12 Inches in a Foot?🟢Nanotechnology🟢नवरात्रि - Navratri🟢What is Stem Cell Research?🟢The Most Dangerous Tree🟢Extinct Animals of the World🟢जातक कथा: लक्खण मृग की कहानी | The Story of The Two Deer🟢जातक कथा: महाकपि का बलिदान | The Story of Great Monkey🟢जातक कथा: छद्दन्त हाथी की कहानी | Chaddanta Elephant🟢जातक कथा: दो हंसों की कहानी | The Story of Two Swans🟢जातक कथा: रुरु मृग | The Story of Ruru Deer🟢जातक कथा: चांद पर खरगोश | The Hare on The Moon🟢जातक कथा: महिलामुख हाथी | The Story Of Mahilaimukha Elephant🟢जातक कथा: बिना अकल के नक़ल की कहानी | Akal Ke Bina Nakal🟢जातक कथा: गौतम बुद्ध और अंगुलिमाल की कथा | Gautam Budha & Angulimal Ki Kahani🟢अलिफ लैला - शहरयार और शहरजाद की शादी की कहानी🟢अलिफ लैला - अमीना की कहानी🟢अलिफ लैला - गरीब मजदूर की कहानी🟢अलिफ लैला - भद्र पुरुष और उसके तोते की कहानी

“The Knowledge Library”

Knowledge for All, without Barriers……….
An Initiative by: Kausik Chakraborty.

The Knowledge Library

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL ART

Crafts, Trades, and Towns

    • Trade was a factor that was continuous and consistent from 200 AD to 300 AD. Different parts of the country were connected through trade routes, some leading to Western and Central Asia. Gangetic valleys had ports that had sea routes to Ceylon and Burma. Taxila was connected to Patliputra through a highway. Land routes to southern India were also well developed.
    • The discovery of Monsoon winds in 1st Century AD led to improved connectivity through the Arabian sea and this further boosted trade and connectivity between India and West Asia.
    • The Roman empire had a strong presence in Europe and East Asia and the Indian traders had a thriving partnership with their counterparts in the Roman empire. The Indian traders would collect merchandise such as herbs, spices, gems, stones, and other articles, and shipping to foreign coasts was done through Foreign traders. The Chinese Old silk road connected Indian traders to Central Asia. It also brought them into contact with Chinese traders and the Silk cloth. Indian merchants became an intermediary for the silk trade between the Chinese and the west.
    • It was observed that the Northern part of India traded with Central Asia and southern traders focused on East Europe and West Asia.
    • Guilds also became common in this period and there existed 75 different occupations of which 60 were of different crafts and art. Artisans were employed by the guilds along with free labor and slaves. The Guild system made manufacturing efficient and also ensured less competition and protection of trade secrets. Guilds used their own insignia and special customs and courts to enforce and uphold their laws.
    • Coin minting also grew during this period. Both foreign and domestic coins were used. Foreign coins were used for larger transactions and domestic coins were used for smaller transactions.

Gandhar School of Art

The Gandhar art emerged in areas around Peshawar.

The Sakas and Kushana were the real patrons of it.

    • A great deal of Gandhar sculpture is aways been found in a blue-grey mica schist, sometimes in a grey phyllite, and rarely in a terracotta. Except for a handful of Hindu idols most of the sculptures are of buddha or the boddhisattvas or of architectural ornament for the Buddhist monasteries. The sculptures chiefly show major events in the life of buddha – his birth, mahaparinirvana, and a great departure
    • The Buddha is standing or seated. The iconography is purely Indian. The seated Buddha is always crossed legged as usually seen in traditional Indian sculptures. The Buddha statues are also marked by the presence of elongated ears, a topknot of hair on his head, and a hairy mole that marked the Buddhas’ forehead. Ears are marked by the absence of earrings or ornaments.
    • Buddha is always with hand gestures in one of the four mudras: Abhaya (Do not fear), Dhyana (seated buddha with palm facing upward signifying meditation), dharma chakra (preaching mudra), and bhumispara (Earth touching mudra).
    • The chief patrons of this school of art were the Shakas and the Kushanas.

The Gandhar form was influenced by the Indian as well as Greco – Roman styles. Buddha’s sculptures in various images, sizes, and forms were made. The yogic posture of Buddha. The reliefs depict his birth, renunciation, and preaching.

 Features:

  1. Molding the human body with features like muscles, mustache, and curtly hair.
  2. Thick drapery with large and bold fold lines.
  3. Rich carving, elaborate ornamentation, and symbolic expressions.
  4. The main theme was  Buddhism – Mahayanism
  5. Grey sandstone was used.
  6. The only Buddhist religion was depicted.
  7. Patrons were Kushana.

The stupas were made taller with ornamentation to make them attractive. The monasteries were also influenced.

Mathura School of Art

The Buddha’s face had a spiritual feeling which was absent in Gandhar art. The Apsara’s and Yakshini’s too were carved beautifully. The school also carved Siva, Vishnu, and their consorts Parvati and Lakshmi.

  1. Indigenous only.
  2. Red sandstone was used.
  3. All religions were depicted.
  4. Patrons were Kushana.
  5. Buddha in Padmasan form. First to carve Jatakas on long rock panels.

Kangra School of painting:

When Nadir Shah invaded India, the Mughal artists fled to the hills and founded it. Its main inspiration was Vaishnavism.

Amravati School of Art 

  1. Indigenous influence
  2. white marble used
  3. Buddhist religion depicted
  4. Satvahana dynasty was patrons.
  5. Jatakas tales of Buddha
  6. Located in Krishna Godavari valley

 

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KAUSIK CHAKRABORTY

KAUSIK CHAKRABORTY

Founder Director

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